‘Sir’ Mir Osman Ali Khan was Nizam-ul-Mulk of Hyderabad ‘Riyasat’ comprising of Telangana and some areas of Andhra Pradesh as well as Marathwada of today belonging to Asaf Jah dynasty founded in 1724. Following decline of Mughals, Deccan witnessed rise of Maratha empire and Nizam himself underwent several invasions by Marathas in 1720s, which resulted in Nizam paying Chauth i.e. a tax to Marathas. Major battles fought between Marathas and Nizam included Palkhed, Bhopal, Rakshasbhuvan, Kharda and Nizams lost all of them. Following conquest of Deccan by Bajirao I and imposition of Chauth by him, Nizams remained a tributary of Marathas for all purposes. In 1805, after British victory in Anglo-Maratha battle II, Nizam of Hyderabad came under the protection of British East India Company. Last Nizam, Mir Osman Ali Khan Asif Jah VII, had 28 sons and 44 daughters. Asaf Jah dynasty followed the Order of Precedence of male primogeniture regardless of mother’s marital status or rank. During partition in 1947, Britain offered 565 states in the sub-continent options of remaining independent or acceding to either Bharata or Pakistan.
Qasim Razvi, a fanatic Muslim in Hyderabad, raised a private army known as Majlis-E-Ittehadul Muslimeen with members as Razakars in support of Nizam’s rule.This terror outfit later became AIMIM headed by Owaisis of Hyderabad. Hyderabad ‘Riyasat’ spread over entire Telugu speaking area in Deccan. In Nizam’s Hyderabad, 12% population of Muslims accounted for more than 90% higher positions in bureaucracy while police and military were dominated by Muslims to the extent of 95%.
One week after nation’s Independence Day, Nizam of Hyderabad declared sovereignty of his Riyasat as His Majlis had already celebrated Independence Day on July 27 addressing Nizam as ‘His Majesty’, flag that flew in Hyderabad was ‘Asif Jahi’ flag and what was heard was ‘Asif Jahi’ as their national anthem ! Agitation for accession started in Hyderabad on August 7, 1947 and thousands of people carrying national tricolour were arrested. On August 15, Police lathi-charged, rained bullets, arrested scores of agitationists even as Razakars attacked them, snatched away and tore the national tricolour. Even Central Government offices were raided by Razakars who destroyed national tricolour which was later mercifully, condemned by JL Nehru in Constituent Assembly.
The agitation spread into villages and large number of village level Government officers resigned in protest. Thereupon, Razakars raided those villages that supported the agitation for accession, indulged in looting, arson, torture, murder and rape on a mass scale. In Bidar district of 1947-48 alone, 176 villages were raided, entire property of Hindu-s plundered, their houses burnt, 120 Hindu-s were brutally slaughtered and 150 women committed suicide that year due to rapes. While Bharata celebrated August 15, 1947 as Independence Day, Hyderabad continued reeling under a brutal, demoniacal regime of Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan. It was only after Bharatiya Sena entered the scene, Hyderabad could be liberated on Sept. 17, 1948.
Urdu was the official language of the ‘Riyasat’ and compulsorily taught in ‘Riyasat’s’ schools. Schools used to officially encourage Muslim students and discourage Hindu children. Quite ironically, with Muslim population in the state being only 12 per cent, they accounted for 75% school students of Hyderabad in 1930. On the other hand, Hindu-s who were 86 per cent of the population accounted for less than one third. Though rare, private schools with Marathi / Telugu / Kannada medium could be started only with special permission of Nizam’s Government. Majority of districts did not have even colleges and people used to cross over into British India for higher education from the ‘Riyasat’.
Local language and culture, Bharatiya nationalism and faiths were suppressed. Dhoti / Kurta / Vande Mataram were banned in Universities of the ‘Riyasat’. 1938 witnessed rustication of thousands of students for violating the ban imposed by Nizamshahi and they included ex-PM PV Narsimha Rao too.
Nizam’s regime was extremely ‘secular’ and ‘tolerant’ too !! Sikhs and Hindu-s were required to seek special permission to organise religious processions, renovate or construct temples and Gurudvaras while securing these permissions used to be hell of a task. Preaching Hinduism was strictly prohibited as ‘other faiths’ would feel offended. On the contrary, one so-called Professor presiding over Milad-un-Nabi could announce fearlessly, “I am pained to see inertness among Muslims when there still exist 22 crore of gobar-parast (dung worshipers)”. The Deendar Siddiq started a majority-cleansing campaign to cleanse the ‘taint’ of Hinduism from Hyderabad in order to convert it into a satellite Pakistan. He explained the concept so well, “A bowl containing one-quarter of milk and three-quarters of dung cannot be called clean…. so long as it contains Kafiristan in it’s territory, it cannot be called Pakistan.” In 1932, he collected Rs. 5 lakhs and one-lakh volunteers to launch Jihad against Hindu shrines. Deendars continued to raid and brutalise Hindu-s hand in glove with Razakars. One Hindu officer reported that blood stained bundles of gold earrings, Mangal Sutra-s, and nose-rings were put under tables in his office by his staff and Razakars after raids to be shared next day.
In late thirties, campaign for Islamisation of Hyderabad was taken over by Bahadur Yar Jung of Majlis, converted 24,000 Hindu-s of backward classes in three years and raised support groups among Hindu-s led by so-called Ittehad depressed class leaders like Venkat Rao and Sham Sunder. He started 52 military training centres across the State for Razakars, raising their strength to 1,00,000 and became more vocal about his aims and ideology. In his “Weapons Week” speech, he declared, “Hyderabad is an Islamic State… Remember that there are four-and-a-half crore Muslims in the Dominion, looking to us to raise the banner of this Islamic State… Qoran is in one hand and the sword is in the other, let us march forward; cut our enemies to pieces; establish our Islamic supremacy… A Hindu who is a Kafir, a worshipper of stone and monkey (laughter), who drinks cow’s urine and eats cowdung in the name of religion (renewed laughter), and who is a barbarian in every sense of the word, wants to rule us! …They are not capable of ruling. That is the reason why they lost it to the Muslims. We are grandsons of Mahmood Ghaznavi and sons of Babar. When determined, we shall fly the Asif Jahi Flag on the Red Fort.”
Muslim Government employees were trained in arms, practised their skills on unarmed Hindu villagers. In Bhairavunipalli after raping the women and burning houses, 92 men were bound and lined up. A contest was conducted to find out how many men a 303 bullet could cut through. Standing tied villagers in a single file, an army man shot through four, a police officer through three. However, Dy. Collector of Bhongir Eqbal Hashim drilled through 8-10 Hindu-s with a single bullet and won the competition while survivors were shot dead with a stengun. Killing with guns was regarded as mercy killing as there were other brutal methods employed too. In one case in Kodakandala, five Brahmana-s were hung from a tree and roasted alive. ‘Peace Committees’ were constituted of Hindu-s and Razakars to silence furore over atrocities on Hindu-s to ‘maintain’ communal harmony by accompanying Razakars on their savage raids to watch brutalities on Hindu-s as mute witnesses. MN Reddy, a Supervisor of Industries Department and S Gopalacharya, a Irrigation Supervisor took their jobs too seriously, blundered by reporting facts. They were later taken to Jangaon Siddipet road and shot dead. Razakars brandishing arms would go around in lorries shouting slogans, proclaiming supremacy of Islam and Islamic sovereignty. One of the slogans they used to shout was, “Nizam ke kadmon pe Nehru ko jhuka denge; Patel, Munshi ko kabron me gad denge. (We shall force Nehru to bow at the feet of the Nizam; We shall bury Patel and Munshi in their graves.)” Zain Yar Khan who represented Hyderabad at Delhi was called a ‘Gaddar’ and marked for liquidation. Shoebullah Khan, Editor of Imroze who ran a vigorous campaign exposing Razakar atrocites and official connivance, was killed near Kachiguda and his hands were chopped off. A large public meeting organised to mourn death of MK Gandhi at Nizam College was raided and dispersed by Razakars. In Nizamabad jail, officials assisted by Muslim inmates and Razakars attacked Hindu prisoners resulting in 123 casualties. Even KM Munshi, Agent General of Government of India, himself was a marked man, carrying a reward of Rs 5,000 put on his head by a Mulla in a neighbourhood Masjid.
So was the Nizamian terror, replete with brutal anti-humanity crimes, blood-bath and plunder. That was finally ended by Bharatiya Sena that marched into Hyderabad on Sept. 17, 1948 and Sept. 17 is celebrated as the Liberation Day of Hyderabad. It is very agonising and unfortunate that in spite of all those brutalities, anti-Hindu parties led by Congress continued ruling over Andhra Pradesh for decades as majority community continued voting them to power quite cheerfully !! Blessed with such suicidal tendencies and evanescent memory, Hindu-s are likely to undergo that inhuman savagery again and again in future.
It was All India Women’s Conference who were the first to demand Uniform Civil Code, UCC hereinafter, in 1930s entailing equal rights for women, irrespective of religion, marriage, inheritance, divorce, adoption or succession. While Constituent Assembly and Parliament have been positive towards UCC, it was postponed as Directive Principles of the Constitution as they did not wish to augment religious strife and tension in the country during decades after independence. With the Supreme Court judgment holding Triple-Talaq unconstitutional and illegal, it is now necessary and unavoidable to go ahead with the enactment of Uniform Civil Code. After report of Bharatiya Law Commission on UCC is received, ball shall be set rolling by the Union Government.
An ideal UCC shall include several restructured laws viz. abolition of Islamic polygamy, arbitrary divorce, tax benefits to HUF, some distinct practices of Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism etc. to attain faith-neutrality. Every political party must shun motivated secularism as well as vote politics before a sound and rational consensus is arrived at. Fortunately, Government headed by PM Modi is well poised to undertake the gigantic exercise involving marathon discussions and consensus making.
Let us first have a bird’s eye-view of all such laws that may be affected by UCC –
Hindu Personal Laws apply to all except Muslims, Christians, Parsis and Jews. It is valid for Buddhists and Jains too. Hindu Succession Act 1956 did not concede birthright to women in ancestral property which was amended in 2005 and co-parcenary’ right extended to married daughters too; Hindu Marriage Act 1955 regarded marriage as a sacrament, without living spouse at the time of marriage, minimum marriageable age of 18 and 21 for girls and boys respectively, marriage only out of prohibited degrees of pre-existing relationships; bigamy a criminal act; divorce on specific grounds of adultery, cruelty, religious conversion, mental illness etc.; divorce petition within one year of marriage not permissible, cool off period from 6 to 18 months allowed, both men and women may claim maintenance, no claim of maintenance for unchaste women or after conversion, refusing to live with husband’s parents a ground for divorce; woman has no claim to matrimonial home unless purchased with her own earnings; Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act 1956 allows Hindu-s to adopt within a defined legal framework.
Muslim Personal Law Shariat Application Act 1937, Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act 1939 and Muslim Women Protection of Rights on Divorce Act 1986 are the three Acts in addition to four schools of Sunni jurisprudence i.e. Hanafi, Maliki, Shaifii, Hanbali and two Shia schools, Jafari and Zaidiyyah. No distinction between self-owned and ancestral property, no birth-right to property, property inherited only after death of ancestor, equal share to property for men and women, half of every woman’s share given as Mehr, marriage being a civil contract with defined obligations, ceremony in presence of two adult witnesses with at least one man, polygamy allowed, husband may freely divorce unilaterally only after four attempts of reconciliation and Iddat, woman can divorce on specified grounds only, Halala compulsory if divorced woman wants to remarry her ex-husband, no adoption laws on board, no right to inheritance for adopted child, adoption limited to foster care alone, mother not recognised as natural guardian of her child.
Christian Personal Law is the Indian Christian Marriage Act 1872 for marriage, divorce and maintenance with Christians of Travancore, Cochin, Manipur and J&K exempted, inheritance and succession governed by the Indian Succession Act 1925, adoption and guardianship governed by Guardians & Wards Act 1890.
Parsi Personal Law is the Parsi Marriage & Divorce Act 1936 amended in 1988, marriage is a spiritual compact, non-Parsi woman not entitled to inheritance while children can, children of Parsi woman married to a non-Parsi not regarded as Parsis, divorce claims maintainable only after two years of marriage on specific grounds, mutual consent or irretrievable breakdown unacceptable, special Parsi courts adjudicate such cases, maintenance maintainable till next marriage only, adoption not recognised. Parsi Chief Matrimonial Courts are established as special courts in each of the presidential towns of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. In contested matrimonial matters, special delegates are appointed, who are usually respected members of the small community. Parsis are a tiny community whose ancestors came to Bharata from Parsia in Iran. They currently count mere 61,000 and diminishing by the day. Nation’s population rises by 21% and Parsis decline by 12% every Census.
Scheduled tribes follow their own customary community laws.
So what we behold is that while all communities are governed by the same criminal jurisprudence but civil acts by a plethora of personal laws zealously guarded by their respective communities. Supreme Court’s judgement upholding privacy as a fundamental right, Article 44 of the Directive Principles of the Constitution to ensure legislation of UCC as well as Article 25 (2)A to ensure freedom of religious practices, have together created a Bermuda Triangle for a well-meaning Government to navigate through before being able to successfully draft an acceptable and implementable UCC. It is also an exercise of delicate balancing as unfounded communal friction and apprehension of majoritarian bullying through absolute majority in Parliament has been created by nefarious anti-national unity lobbies. While assimilation-ists are being accused of ‘majoritarianism’, those who vouch for hydra-headed isolationism in the name of pluralism are accused of being hostile to unity and uniformity in civil laws that the Government wishes to introduce. Votaries of multiculturalism overlook the fact that multiculturalism has failed the world over even as admitted by British Premier David Cameron owing to fanatical inflexibility and extreme sense of isolationism among Muslims. Displacement of Rohingya Muslims from Burma caused by their own criminal fundamentalism against their own Burmese Government, then desparately seeking refuge in other countries instead of introspecting and mending their ways, is a monumental endorsement of miserable collapse of the much tom-tommed doctrine of multiculturalism. Muslims rigidly want all other communities and countries to compromise with them and be perpetually obliged in doing so while they do absolutely no compromise or adjustment under any circumstance. Such a conduct is nothing short of fanaticism of diabolical variety.
Owing to foreign invasions, country remained in grave turmoil during fierce struggle against foreigner invaders for centuries who plundered and savagely brutalised our ancestors. Mughals, British despots, then Christian missionaries caused havoc with social fabric of the country. They also forced and induced proselytization of a large section of population into Islam / Christianity which had no roots in the region / country at all. Not only that, they destroyed Manusmriti’s Varna system, imposed caste system, sowed seeds of class / caste / religious divisions, separatism, anti-Hinduism and anti-nationalism. Our glorious history was denied to us to destroy our national pride and self-esteem. Fires of separatism were malevolently stoked by those foreign occupiers and every group / community was deviously motivated to practise their own laws and civil codes commensurate with their policy of ‘Divide, Rule, Loot and Destroy’. Over decades, highly destructive ideas like excessive emphasis over so-called plurality hiding separatism in reality, assumed deep roots with a plethora of rules and standards. Often, these used to kick up storms of complex conflicts and confrontation leading to serious law and order issues. Post-1947, it was visualised to gradually move towards re-unification of Bharata for a stable and secured future of all denizens. Thus, realised was the necessity of enacting one single code of conduct for all communities residing in the country. While civil code for Hindu-s was standardised immediately, minorities were left to fend for themselves owing to political considerations. However, demand has started growing louder for UCC if the nation has to be truly progressive with laws gender neutral as almost all laws have been biased against women.
Constituent Assembly was constituted amidst one of the worst human calamities that mankind might have ever witnessed and all that due to personality-clashes / ambition of just a few individuals who anointed themselves greater than people as well as this nation. At the instance of some Hindu reformers, British occupiers of the country had outlawed certain practices and drafted a Hindu Reforms Law in 1946 yet deliberately did not touch Muslim personal practices in pursuance of their malevolent policy of ‘Divide, Rule, Loot and Destroy’. JL Nehru and his Xerox copies stoked pre-existing sense of separatism among Muslims emphasising they apprehended for their security and well-being due to Hindu majoritarianism !! It was so ironical to vouch that Hindu-s, most peaceful and least aggressive community in the world, were dubbed to cause grave existential threat to the most violent community in the world, responsible for initiating / causing savagery / butchery on non-Muslims all over the world for the last 1400 years !! That is when seeds of the rift over UCC were sown and watered repeatedly British Thugs and their cohorts in Congress. Had JL Nehru been a nation-maker, eradicated apprehension of Muslims, assumed guarantee for their well-being on behalf of Hindu-s, cited and hammered glorious history of Ahimsa and non-invasion by Hindu-s into Muslim minds, contours of the nation would have been unbelievably different and there would have been no deadly imbroglio over UCC today. Root-cause of the problem is hidden in the fact, majority of Hindu leaders do not have guts to tell Muslims bluntly, you have been initiator of all troubles, you are guilty as Hindu-s merely reacted to defend themselves when sick and tired of atrocities inflicted by you, you have to mend your ways first and last, you always initiated blood-bath…that such an atrocious religious bullying will destroy them one day…However, no leader has mustered so much courage to say that publicly. Communists too, generously fished in troubled waters and aggravated friction, attrition and tension in the country with an absurd dream to capture the nation and impose Communism. Some leading members of the Constituent Assembly envisaged, UCC would be incorporated into the Constitution as a fundamental right and not as one of the Directive Principles of State Policy. Then there was another group of Muslim members stoutly opposing UCC demanding Personal Laws as fundamental rights and they dubbed UCC ‘tyrannical’ !! Highly provocative speeches were delivered in the Constituent Assembly and their refrain was, if British did not ‘touch’ Muslim Personal Laws for 175 years, then who was Constituent Assembly to dare doing that !! They did not vouch for the fact, Constituent Assembly was supreme and they had no business to compare that with those handful of British Thugs from Thomas Row to ‘Lord’ Mountbatten who intruded only to plunder and destroy the country. Their assertion in fact, amounted to sedition. Muslim members asserted, proposed Article 35 of the Constitution incorporating UCC directly contradicted Article 19 allowing right to practise religion and if enacted, grave consequences would follow. Thus, Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee was compelled to recommend, UCC be treated as justiciable rights because “one of the factors keeping India back from advancing to nationhood was the existence of personal laws”. Minorities Sub-Committee also examined the issue and declared, “Common Code should be made entirely voluntary” and the entire Clause in Directive Principles be worked out again.
Constituency Assembly member KM Munshi asserted to outgrow personal laws integrated to religion fostered, nurtured by British Thugs and their Kangaroo courts. According to Alladikrishna Ayyar, cries of “religion in danger” and of “lack of amity if a code were made mandatory” were non-sequitur as the clause was aimed at amity and integrating Bharata into one nation. “Is this country always to be kept as a series of competing communities?” poignantly he asked. Dr. Ambedkar was baffled when a Muslim member wanted to know whether UCC was feasible and desirable in a vast country like our’s, “We have in this country a uniform code of laws covering almost every aspect of human relationship. We have a uniform and complete criminal code… We have a law of transfer of property… I can cite innumerable enactments which would prove that this country has practically a civil code, uniform in it’s content and applicable to the whole of the country.” Muslim Personal Law was not immutable as Muslims in North-West Frontier Province were exempted from Shariah till 1935 and those in the United Provinces, Central Provinces and Bombay were governed by Hindu laws in matters of succession while in North Malabar even followed matriarchal Marumakkathayam law !! Nehru enjoyed tremendous support in those years and he should / could have gone ahead with UCC instead of converting UCC a ‘decoration piece’ in Directive Principles of the Constitution and a golden historic opportunity was lost. Dr. Ambedkar authored UCC in 1951 and it was killed by the sham of ‘unity in diversity and plurality’ having strong under-currents of Islamic appeasement. Second such effort was done by Bangladesh Mahila Parishad in 1989 and that was done to death by Bangladeshi Islamism where question of diversity and plurality did not arise at all.
Unlike women from other communities, Muslim women are denied their legal rights in personal realm despite Quranic injunctions. Practices such as Triple Talaq and Halala persist in our society despite the fact that the Quran does not sanction them. Quran gave clear rights to women 1,400 years ago in marriage, family, society and public life, but in reality there has been a persistent denial of these rights to them. So much so that deeply entrenched perception persists that in Islam, men are supreme over women. Shariah Application Act, 1937 is silent on all these matters. It is claimed that Bharatiya Muslims are governed by Shariah but Shariah as practised currently in different parts of the country, is undefined and unwritten. It is subject to multiple interpretations and misinterpretations which are invariably unfair to women. When Muslim Marriage Dissolution Act 1939 was being legislated, Ulemas insisted on a stipulation that cases under this law should only be heard only by a Muslim Judge. Ulemas stick to their stand even today. That is why they demand institutions like Darul Qaza (parallel Islamic courts) be vested with judicial powers. This explains why Muslim Personal Law Board always challenges authority of courts examining Constitutional validity of religious laws. Whenever courts deliver a verdict not approved by the clergy, they accuse courts of interference in their religion. Courts have been prodding successive Governments to enact UCC as enshrined in Article 44 of the Constitution. They raised the issue in 1985, 1995, 2015 and now while trashing Triple Talaq as bad in law. Votaries of so-called minority rights claim UCC to be a RSS conspiracy !! They are intentionally ignorant of the fact that not a single member of Constituent Assembly was RSS member !! Shariah based on Quran and Hadis recorded 30 decades after so-called Prophet’s demise, began at the time of Khalifa and continued for 100 years. Almost 90 percent of these codes do not belong to Quran at all, reflect Arabic traditions of those times. Shariah is neither uniform across all Islamic countries nor immutable based on local cultural practices as well as outlawed in large number of Islamic countries. Laws should be equal for all citizens irrespective of religion, caste or gender and in a democratic polity, no religious law can be above Constitution.
Muslims claim Quran, Shariah enjoy ‘divine mandate’ and unconditional obedience to Quran’s commandments is a prerequisite for being considered a Muslim. Hindu-s never had an ‘obey or die’ commandment puking ‘holy’ texts like Quran or Bible. However, Christians and other communities have mostly accepted and honoured Constitutional mandates and they have not been so intransigent with respect to civil codes like Muslims. Hindu-s have been most amenable when it comes to reformation and advancement. After going through all these narrations, any rational fellow would conclude, UCC has been necessitated only due to defiant and ‘do not care a damn’ attitude of Muslim community. If they are not disciplined and restrained to conform to sane social norms facilitating other communities to co-survive peacefully through UCC, it may lead to social tension of monumental dimensions and well-being of entire nation shall be jeopardised.
A country blessed with so much talent, natural resources and well-informed nationals could not create her own Google, Apple, Facebook etc. When the same very brains go overseas, they do miracles. It is an enigmatic riddle not very difficult to resolve.
Ratan Naval Tata eloquently explained why as reported in the Economic Times dated Oct. 12, 2017 –
“We do not have an environment where somebody says, ‘you have a great idea and so you need to be supported. We have instead an attitude of ‘we don’t need to have this, we can do well with what we have’.”
Conceptual understanding of our cultural ethos of Samyama, Tapa, Yajna, Rudraksa, Kamandala, Gangajala, Cimta, Lota….has gone horribly wrong in absence of proper instructions and mentoring. We are unable to distinguish Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksa individually, their respective significance and dynamics thereof. Even erudite scholars are unable to comprehend Karma and Karmaphala on one side of the fence and Prarabdha on the other. All that used to be taught in Gurukula-s earlier, so the nation was “Sone Ki Chiria” as our ancestors brought up in Gurukula-s, used to be pioneers in every discipline of activity that they undertook. Nation commanded more than one-fourth of world trade thus, envied by all. When our ancestors used to leave their bodies behind, visit space to closely examine movement of Naksatra-s, revert into their bodies and write marvellous treatises on astronomy, then ancestors of those successful Start-up owners of today used to jump from one tree-top to another like apes !! Invaders came, humbled and brutalised us, then came British Govt. by proxy in Nehru-Gandhi-Vadra dynasty who carried forward with the loot, plunder and nefarious conversions. They also allowed Communists too, to flourish in the country and wreak havoc with our culture and civility. This evil dynasty destroyed towering self-esteem of Hindu-s blended with ‘Killer Instinct To Win’ and we sunk into depths of siege mentality where we still languish. Hindu-s have been scarred for centuries left alone to sulk and rue.
Struggle to come out of that mind-set started only in 2014, almost seven decades after we attained our sham independence. Real independence was attained only in 2014 and now we are settling down on the right path to re-attain our pristine glory that was snatched away from us forcibly. Distinct and explicit signals are there for all to behold. In 1925, there was an incomprehensible ideological ‘Start-up’ by one Hindu visionary and it grew into a gigantic banyan tree, now encompassing the whole world, known as RSS !! The founder of this ‘Start-up’ commenced his journey from ‘Uttistha Bharata’ and raised it to the Himalayan heights of ‘Uttistha, Sangathit, Jagrit’ Bharata surpassing even Swami Vivekananda in his grand vision for the nation and nation is safe, secured today ONLY due to RSS. Two semi-clad Sannyasi-s in Haridwar picked up Gandiva Dhanusa to challenge not only the slavish national mentality but also vicious hegemony of exploitative multi-national corporates head on. One of them became icon of Yoga and Arogya while the other one now is one of the wealthiest ten in the country, resolutely moving ahead to become a Forbes billionaire !! World shall soon witness a live, practising Forbes billionaire Sannyasi, something inconceivable hitherto. Scenario shall certainly change for the better and it is gaining momentum uninterruptedly. Ratan Tata may not be there to witness and admire those days but those days are bound to arrive. He is well aware of hurdles, barriers, problems that were raised by British occupiers of the country for his ancestor Jamshedji Nusservanji Tata to confront while struggling to realise his dream of raising a steel plant in Jamshedpur. Those British Thugs did everything in the ‘rule-book’ to destroy the dream and the grand visionary JN Tata did not live to see his dream come true. It was left for his son Dorabji Tata to behold that later.
Ratan Naval Tata may rest assured about the certain turnaround in due course of time, sooner than visualised.
Cetana i.e. Absolute Consciousness and Prakriti i.e. Absolute Nature, together constitute entire existence. It is Prakriti that migrates into grosser modifications i.e. Vikrti to raise Mul-Prakrti, Mahatattva, Ahamkara and Tanmatra. Tanmatra further evolves into Sabda-Tanmatra ( for perception of sound ), Sparsa-Tanmatra ( for perception of touch ), Rupa-Tanmatra ( for perception of light ), Rasa-Tanmatra ( for perception of taste ) and Gandha–Tanmatra ( for perception of odour ) which cause creation of five elemental Mahabhuta Tattva-s i.e. Akasa, Vayu, Agni, Jala and Prthvi. Five Mahabhuta-s are graded based on their respective subtlety with subtlest one being Akasa and the grossest one, Prithvi. Five Mahabhuta-s transform themselves in innumerable ways to cause creation of everything that we know, perceive and cognise in the entire universe. This mystical transformation is also accompanied by innumerable permutations and combinations among themselves to allow creation of innumerable objects. So Mahabhuta Tattva-s are mutable i.e. transformable yet Sanatana i.e. eternal.
Serious challenge of striking right multi-faceted equilibrium springs forth when a Jivatma is born in this jungle of innumerable creations constituted of five Mahabhuta-s. Challenge because every Jivatma is expected to deport itself in a certain way amidst intricate jungle of Mahabhuta-s and every Jivatma is a very complex conglomerate of five Mahabhuta-s and Cetana too. Challenge is further compounded by the reality that innumerable Jivatma-s are born vying among themselves to gain a firm foot-hold in this cosmic jungle that we call the world. Complexity of the challenge is further aggravated when human beings are born, endowed with intellectual capabilities as well as venalities like aspiration to become Absolute Creator of the universe themselves !!
To ensure all Jivatma-s including human beings interact rationally among themselves as well as vis. a vis. creations of Mahabhuta Tattva-s and avoid even a semblance of cosmic disruption, Eternal Providence created a divine code of conduct renowned as Dharma, a catalogue of attributes that every Jivatma, particularly human beings must possess. Dharma is an institution in itself that has been defined by Maharsi Manu in his legendary wisdom of Manusmriti with absolute degree of precision –
Dhritiha Ksama Damoasteyam Saucamindriyanigrahaha I
Dhirvidya Satyamakrodho Dasakam Dharmalaksanam II VI / 62 II
Dhriti, Ksama, Dama, Asteya, Sauca, Indriya–Nigraha, Dhiha, Vidya, Satya and Akrodha are ten elements that constitute Dharma.
Dhriti is patience towards all; Ksama is forgiveness; Dama is the virtue of restraining oneself from indulgence with evil deeds; Asteya is renouncing thievery and unrighteous acquisition; Sauca is internal and external consecration through purification; Indriya–Nigraha is restraining senses from gratification through introversion; Dhiha is abstaining from addictive intoxicants; Vidya is striving for Viveka–Jnana; Satya is truthfulness and finally Akrodha, renouncing anger towards all and everyone. All these are fundamentals of Dharma that members of all four Asrama-s and Varna-s are mandated to pursue religiously.
Now we behold, Dharma is Sanatana i.e. eternal and immutable. Dharma is absolutely incomparable and unique, endowed with the same mystical subtlety that Mahabhuta Tattva-s happen to be. Dharma is ubiquitous too i.e. omni-present and omni-existent. Dharma is essentially subtlest Jada yet when enacted, transforms itself into a glorious manifest of Cetana like Akasa and Prana. No other language in the world has an exactly precise counterpart of the term ‘Dharma’ hence the term is ‘un-translatable’ being an extra-ordinary institution. Whenever and wherever Jivatma is there, Dharma has to be there inevitably. Interestingly, it is only human beings who necessarily require to be taught and trained pursuit of Dharma as intellectual faculty they are endowed with, is a permanent rebel. Animals are natural and excellent followers of their Dharma in spite of not being trained or taught any lesson on Dharma at all. Indeed, when a man trains an animal to behave in a particular way, it is in reality Adharma i.e. complete absence of Dharma that is taught to them by human trainers !!! As an Adhyatmika enthusiast, I am inclined to declare Dharma as the sixth Mahabhuta after Akasa, Vayu, Agni, Jala and Prithvi.
If Dharma is Atma, religion is it’s embodiment. If Dharma is one of the means to attain the Supreme Absolute, religion is one of the means to practise Dharma. Jivatma is the sole purpose and objective of Dharma, which in turn is the sole purpose and objective of religion while religion can never be the purpose of Dharma. While Dharma is subservient to Jivatma in spite of the ruling that looms over head of every Jivatma, “Be you ever so high, Dharma is above you”, religion is subservient to Dharma directly and to Jivatma, indirectly. Just as Dharma has been defined in Manusmriti with absolute precision, religion too has been defined with absolute precision by Maharsi Patanjali. Just as there is ONLY one Dharma in the world i.e. Sanatana Dharma, there is ONLY ONE religion too i.e. Sanatana Pantha in the world. And this Sanatana Pantha is Astangayoga of Maharsi Patanjali –
Yamaniyamasanapranayampratyaharadharanadhyanasamadhyoasta Vangani I (II/29)
Yama (Restraint), Niyama (Observance), Asana (Posture), Pranayama (Regulation of Breath)
Pratyahara (Withholding of Senses), Dharana (Fixity of Mind), Dhyana (Meditation) and Samadhi (Perfect Concentration) are the eight means of attaining Yoga.
First five elements of the Yoga are practised externally i.e. at gross, physical level while Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi, internally at the subtle level of consciousness. When entire consciousness is transfixed on Dhyeya i.e. object of contemplation, it is known as the state of Dharana. Dhyana is the state of being completely assimilated into the Dhyeya with respect to consciousness excluding consciousness pertaining to any other entity. When cognition of the object as Dhyeya is completely dissolved and entire consciousness is transfixed on the conceptual existence of Dhyeya, it is the state of Samadhi. Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi are together known as Samyama. By resolving Samyama on various entities, one is rendered capable of performing any miracle, even those that would appear impossible miracles otherwise.
This eight-fold endeavour intertwined with some elements of Sanatana Dharma, to attain ultimate liberation is complete and perfect in itself. It has taken care of all the possible repercussions and ramifications that one may encounter during it’s pursuit. The real marvel of Astangayoga lies in it’s complete and absolute objectivity, based on unedited and unadulterated cosmic realities. I venture to emphasise again, there is absolutely no trace of any subjective element whatsoever, in it’s entire philosophy. So much so that even a Muslim-fanatic may dub it as Allah Yoga or a diehard harvester of faith, Christian-Benedict as Christ / Jesus Yoga !!! If someone’s take happens to be that some Sufi fellow with the name Jalaluddin Rumi attained salvation by traversing the path of Islam, my rejoinder would be that even while practising five Namaz a day, Rumi could not have ignored elements of Astangayoga i.e. Yama, Niyama…etc. He had to practise these, even in the name of Islam !!! Ultimate salvation is altogether a different proposition which no other so-called religion can attain. Sole, existing religion of Astangayoga is a means to the highest state of consciousness. Even so-called most intelligent man of 20th century, Albert Einstein practised Astangayoga to open up innumerable locks in his brain whose keys were irretrievably lost into his ocean of ignorance. As entanglement with the gross world is multi-pronged and multifarious, equally capable and compatible spiritual regime is essential to combat the entanglement at the same level of strive. Mysticism of Astangayoga lies in it’s absolute neutrality towards all faiths because mere pursuit of faith adds to entanglement with the gross. Astangayoga is amply competent to dissolve the drag caused by pursuit of faiths. Owing to it’s absolute objectivity and pristine purity, Astangayoga is the Param Satya Yoga as well as Param Brahma Yoga, too.
A mountaineer intending to arrive at Mount Everest may come from any corner of the world yet he shall have to report at the Base-Camp before embarking on the heroism of summiteering. Cosmic journey from the base-camp to the summit constitutes Sanatana Pantha of Astangayoga wherein the base-camp is ‘Yama‘ while the summit is ‘Samadhi‘. Journeys from various corners of the world to the base-camp are indeed, life-styles i.e. Islam, Christianity, Judaism, so on and so forth. Indeed, other than the Sanatana Pantha of Astangayoga of Maharsi Patanjali being the only religion, Buddhism / Jainism / Islam / Christianity / Judaism / Bahaism etc. are mere life-styles. Hinduism is a complex entity of Sanatana Dharma, Sanatana Pantha as well as life-styles. If a Hindu conducts a Vedic Yajna with or without motives, at best it is a life-style which in no way can assure Adhyatmika advancement / refinement of any order. Ardent pursuit of even life-style Hinduism cannot attain salvation, leave alone Islam or Christianity. Rituals at best, discipline one’s life-style devoid of any Adhyatmika advancement. All observances, austerities etc. constitute Hindu way of life alone. Also, they do not at all assure attainment of Moksa i.e. ultimate liberation.
Wisdom lies in being resolute about observance of Sanatana Dharma and Sanatana Pantha. There is absolutely no wisdom in being resolute or fanatical about constituents of various life-styles. It is a human tragedy of monumental dimensions that majority of human beings are fanatical about life-styles in the name of Hinduism / Buddhism / Jainism / Christianity / Islam etc. which are not even religion at all not to speak of Dharma of any kind while being absolutely ignorant about cardinality of Sanatana Dharma and Sanatana Pantha.