IS BEEF-EATING ‘HARAAM’ IN ISLAM ??

Yes. It appears so.

Controversy over beef-eating has been a very old issue and it has witnessed too much attrition, friction, crime and brouhaha during past several centuries. Hereinasunder, we shall examine a bouquet of affirmations emanating from Islamic quarters prohibiting beef consumption by Muslims.

Beef eating is not at all an Islamic life-style. Nor is it ordained in so-called Sharia. Hence ban on cow slaughter can never be prejudicial to Islamic religious freedom and the right to the choice of food of Muslims.

As a matter of fact, Islam does not prohibit vegetarianism at all and there are scores of devout Muslims who are confirmed vegetarians.

Hazrat Ali Ibn Ali Talib, cousin and son-in-law of Mohammed, IV Khalifa as per Sunni faith, has been quoted in Sharh Nahjul Balagha, “Do not convert your stomach into graveyard of animals.”

So-called renowned Islamic scholar Hamza Yusuf is more direct and devastating in his declaration, “Meat is not necessary in Sharia and in old days most Muslims used to eat meat if they were wealthy like middle class, once a week on Fridays. If they were poor, on the festive occasion of Eids.”

So-called Shia scholar Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Mohammed Hussein Fadlallah responded online in 2001, “Vegetarianism is Halal. Meat is not compulsory. Any food is permissible provided it is not harmful. Muslims are free to eat whatever they want provided it is Halal.”

Another so-called Islamic scholar Mohammed Al Shirazi says, “Being vegetarian is OK and Halal and in fact we have Hadith in Islam that encourages us to eat less meat.”

Ayatullah Sayyid Khamanei Fatwa-ed digitally, “According to Islamic law (Sharia), there is no objection to it. However eating meat is permissible in Islamic law although eating too much is reprehensible (Makruh).”

Meat is not a staple diet in abundantly agriculture based economy of India while in West Asia, they had no such option available to them, so resorted to flesh-eating.

In his entire lifetime, so-called Prophet Mohammed himself is not known to have ever tasted cow-meat. No Hadith is available to confirm his cow-flesh eating. On the contrary, several statements issued by him are available to the effect that that cow’s meat causes severe illness while cow’s milk / ghee have medicinal properties.

Imam Suyati quotes Mohammed in his al-Jami as-Saghir, “Milk of the bovine (cow) contains healing, its fat is a medicine and its meat a cause for sickness.”

Another Hadith scholar Abu al-Qasim Sulaiman ibn Ahmed ibn Al-Tabarani affirmed it authentic. So did Bayhaqi in his Sunam and Hakim in his work, Mustadrak.

Maulana Alvi Gurgani, one of the four Shia Muftis authorised to issue Fatwa-s, ruled that cow-slaughter must be avoided as cow is adored by Hindus.

Fatwa-e-Humayuni, Darul Mukhtiar, Maulana Hassan Nizami and Hakim Ajmal Khan have affirmed and re-affirmed that cow slaughter is NOT mandatory in Islam, sacrifice of sheep / goat is superior to cow sacrifice, poor Muslims are under no obligation to offer sacrifice of animals, Koran and Arab traditions do not support cow sacrifice.

During life and times of KhwajaMoinuddin Chisti of Ajmer, there have been several instances of cow protection.

Hajrat Hamiduddin Nagori of Rajasthan was a vegetarian all his life and entry to Dargah after meat consumption is prohibited even today.

Last Mughal King BS Zafar had issued a decree declaring cow-killers as his enemy and slaughter of cow / bull / calf punishable by death sentence.

Similar Firman was issued by his ancestor Akbar too, as elaborately mentioned by Abul Fazal in Ain-i-Akbari. French traveller Francois Bernier too, mentioned the same in his memoirs.

Sufi Bangalori Mastan of Maheshwar in MP was not only a vegetarian but also had a cow-shelter.

So well known Sayyed Ibrahim Khan or Ras Khan, a devout Muslim and follower of Vasudeva Shri Krishna, regarded Gokul as the best place for animals to live as it is sanctified by cows.

Dr. Rashid Ali Khan of Saharanpur was brutally killed by meat-mafia as he opposed cow slaughter assertively. So was S. Ahmed who fought cow-smugglers in 1979.

Muslim Rashtriya Manch demanded all India ban on cow-slaughter in their Raipur Conference 2014 through a Central law.

So it appears, cow-meat eating is ‘Haraam’ in Islam for all practical purposes though they may not have declared that through Fatwa.

Entire controversy with respect to an all India ban on cow-slaughter through an act of Parliament is political raised by anti-Hindu / anti-India forces funded from overseas.

Central Government must act firmly and decisively to proclaim cow-slaughter a cognisable offence punishable with capital punishment / life imprisonment immediately.

Islamic clergy too, must organise themselves and declare beef-eating ‘Haraam’. This one step shall dissolve so much friction, attrition and bloodshed in the country.

 

Published @ http://patriotsforum.org/is-beef-eating-haraam-in-islam/

 

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MANUSMRITI IS VARNA NEUTRAL -12

MANUSMRITI  IS THE MOST ENLIGHTENED, PERFECT AND THE GREATEST CIVIL CODE EVER KNOWN TO HUMANITY.

In this series only those Sloka-s have been selected for exposition that confront all misgivings / untrue perceptions about the wisdom of Manusmriti  prevailing all around and facilitate accurate interpretation.

 

Subhasubhaphalam Karma Manovagdehasambhavam  I

Karmaja Gatayo Nrinamuttamadhamamadhyamaha 

II XII / 1 II

Subha, Asubha  Karma-s enacted through Mana, Vacana  and Sarira  invite Uttama, Madhyama  and Adhama  destinies.

Subha  and Asubha Karma-s are the noble and ignoble ones respectively that are enacted, prompted by unredeemed Samskara-s while Mana, Vacana  and Sarira  i.e. mind, utterances and gross body respectively, are the instruments with which Karma-s are enacted. These Karma-s enacted on grosser planes of existence are redeemed on subtle as well as gross planes of existence. Intensity and nature of these Karma-s also decide destiny to come, nature of next embodiment and Karmaphala-s i.e. proceeds of Karma-s enacted, to be undergone. Based on the Karma-s enacted, three orders of destinies Uttama, Madhyama  and Adhama  i.e. highly accomplished, medium and ignoble respectively have been identified by Maharsi Manu.

Paradravyesvabhidhyanam Manasanistacintanam  I

Vitathabhinivesasca Trividham Karma Manasam 

II XII / 3 II

Desire to purloin, wishing ill unto others and dubious resolves constitute ignoble Karma-s on subtle plane.

Mind is the subtle plane of enacting subtle Karma-s that may motivate one to proceed onto grosser planes of action. Subtle or mental Karma  may be nurturing desire to steal, wishing and praying for some one to suffer out of sheer aversion or jealousy. It may even be a resolve that ever remains unredeemed causing discomfiture or embarrassment to some etc. Subtle Karma-s even if not transformed into gross actions, affect several others directly or indirectly. Hence, these are very much Karma-s, must be redeemed appropriately.

Parusyamanratam Caiva Paisunyam Capi Sarvasaha  I

Asambaddhapralapasca Vangamayam Syaccaturvidham  II XII / 4 II

Parusya, Anrata, Paisunya  and Asambaddha  are the four orders of Karma-s enacted through Vacana.

Vacana  i.e speech is another instrument of action. Karma-s that may be undertaken through Vacana  are Parusya  i.e. invocation of harsh expressions even if these are true, Anrata  i.e. utter falsification and Paisunya  i.e. calumny in absentia and finally Asambaddha  i.e. indulgence with utter irrelevance. After Mana, Vacana  is the second subtle instrumentality of action that be invoked to enact Karma-s on subtle plane alone.

Adattanamupadanam Himsa Caivavidhanataha  I

Paradaropaseva Ca Sariram Trividham Smratam 

II XII / 5 II

Thievery, violence and promiscuity constitute evil Karma-s of Sarira.

Gross body is capable of performing evil Karma-s like purloining other’s possessions, violence to hurt others and promiscuity with other women. These Karma-s are felonious and invite stringent retribution through destiny.

Manasam Manasaivayamupabhumkte Subhasubham  I

Vaca Vacakrtam Karma Kayenaiva Ca Kayikam 

II XII / 6 II

Karma-s enacted through Mana, Vacana  and Sarira  invite Karmaphala  through Mana, Vacana  and Sarira  respectively.

Plane on which Karma  is enacted is also the very plane of consciousness on which Karmaphala  thereof, fructifies. Mental Karma  invites mental retribution, Karma  through speech invites spoken retribution while physical Karma  enacted, invites physical retribution. Such a compatibility ensures, every Karma  enacted encounters and matches it’s Karmaphala  appropriately and redeemed effectively.  

Yo Yadesam Guno Dehe Sakalyenatiricyate  I

Sa Tada Tadgunaprayam Tam Karoti Saririnam 

II XII / 9 II

Guna  in abundance in Sarira  renders it similar to itself.

Three Guna-s i.e. Sattva, Raja  and Tama  influence course of cosmic movement of Jiva  through the world. The Guna  in abundance in Sarira  influences it to transform itself in harmony itself. For instance, in Sattva  abundant Sarira, Sarira  would become Sattvika  i.e. Sattva  like. Similar is the case of other two Guna-s too i.e. Raja  and Tama. Abundance of Raja  would render Sarira Rajasika  while Tamasika  in the case of Tama Guna.

Yatkarma Krtva Kurvamsca Karisyanscaiva Lajjati  I

Tajjneyam Vidusa Sarvam Tamasam Gunalaksanam 

II XII / 19 II

Intended Karma  if poised to cause aversion and revulsion in one’s inner being, one is imbued with Tama.

If Karma-s that one intends to enact, are likely to invite embarrassment, shame and opprobrium, then the Karma-s are in all likelihood, Tamasika  and the proposer of those Karma-s, a Tamasika  person. Indeed, it is an authentic way of self-examination whether one is a person of Tamasika  traits in abundance.

Yenasminkarmana Loke Khyatimicchati Puskalam  I

Na Ca Socatyasampattau Tadvijneyam Tu Rajasam 

II XII / 20 II

If intended Karma-s inspired by the desire to attain fame, lead to extravagance in spite of being a pauper, one is Rajasika  by disposition.

Rajasika  traits demand fame, wealth and power. Individuals endowed with abundance of Rajasika  traits are seekers of these possessions. Drive to attain these may be so vehement under the influence of Rajas  that no extravagance is eschewed even if the Rajasika  one happens to be a pauper eventually.

Yatsarvenecchati Jnatunyanna Lajjati Cacaran  I

Yena Tusyati Catmaasya Tatsatvagunalaksanam 

II XII / 21 II

If eager to learn from others, imbibe all virtues, not ashamed in actions and pursues what exhilarates Atma, one is Sattvika  in disposition.

Those endowed with abundance of Sattvika  traits too, have unique characteristics. They are ever eager to learn more from others, assimilate virtues and piety from all those who have these in abundance. Sattvika  ones are disposed to enact only those Karma-s that bring about bliss unto their Souls. They are stridently inclined towards asceticism and Adhyatmika  pursuits alone.

Sarvabhutesu Catmanam Sarvabhutani Catmani  I

Samam Pasyannatmayaji Svarajyamadhigacchati 

II XII / 43 II

One who perceives the Absolute Entity being omni-existent everywhere including oneself, is attained to the ultimate abode.

Paramatma  is the Absolute Entity who exists everywhere in the entire cosmos including all animate beings. One who perceives Paramatma  in all beings being all-pervasive, is the one who incessantly remains vested and blissed within His Absolute Being. Such a blessed one is ultimately, attained to Him while constantly practising Dharana  and Dhyana  on Him. Thus, universalism attained by the enlightened one expands unto universalism of the Absolute One.

Yathoktanyapi Karmani Parihaya Dvijottamaha  I

Atmajnane Same Ca Syadvedabhyase Ca Yatnavan 

II XII / 44 II

Accomplished Dvija-s, even after renouncing all Karma-s, may remain vested in the Absolute Wisdom, asceticism and pursuit of Veda-s.

The enlightened Dvija-s who have renounced all their Karma-s while being vested in the bliss of Paramatma, are ordained to continue pursuing Veda-s and other mandates of asceticism. Pursuit of Adhyatma  is a continuous voyage for all. It is never a safe harbour to rest even for the highly advanced ones lest decline sets in sooner than later.

Caturvarnyam Trayo Lokascatvarascasramaha Prthak  I

Bhutam Bhavyam Bhavisyam Ca Sarvam Vedatprasiddhyati  II XII / 49 II

Veda-s alone constitute origin of four Varna-s, three Loka-s, four Asrama-s; Bhuta, Bhavisya, Vartamana  and their governance.

Four Veda-s are consecrated as repositories of entire Vedanta  wisdom involving Varna-s as expounded in Manusmriti; three Loka-s i.e. planes of existence and other celestial bodies; Asrama-s of Brahmacarya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha  and Sannyasa; entire knowledge about all events in Bhuta, Bhavisya  and that of Vartamana  i.e. past, future  and present. Entire Sanatana Vedanta Darsana  is enshrined in Veda-s. Being fountain of entire wisdom, innumerable streams and rivulets have flown out in various directions with dedicated objectives and missions to be pursued ardently.

Yatha Jatabalo Vanhirdahatyardranapi Druman  I

Tatha Dahati Vedajnaha Karmajam Dosamatmanaha 

II XII / 53 II

As blazing fire turns even sodden wood into ashes, VedaJnana  obliterates entire KarmaDosa.

Wisdom enshrined in Veda-s is the VedaJnana  and Samskara-s i.e. imprints of Karma-s enacted are KarmaDosa. All such Samskara-s must be dissolved through redemption and consummation to re-attain pristine pure divinity of Atma. Unless all Samskara-s are completely dissolved and absolute purity re-established, ultimate emancipation is impossible to be attained. VedaJnana  is capable to dissolving all Samskara-s the way blazing fire incinerates even a piece of sodden wood into ashes. The raft of VedaJnana  ferries the worst sinner to liberation from Karma-s.

Tapo Vidya Ca Viprasya Nihsreyasakaram Param  I

Tapasa Kilvisam Hanti Vidyayaamrutamasnute 

II XII / 55 II

Tapa  and Vidya  facilitate liberation of Vipra-s most. Tapa  dissolves evil intentions while Vidya, invites immortality.

Vipra  is a Brahmana  engaged in pursuits of Tapa  i.e. asceticism and Vidya  i.e. wisdom. These two i.e. Tapa  and Vidya  are the highest orders of ascetic pursuits being most powerful and effective. Pursuit of Tapa  dissolves all traces of evil intentions and desires of regressive Karma-s while Vidya  leads one to immortality. Self study of Vidya  is also known as Svadhyaya  that dissolves all Samskara-s and divine purity of Atma  is restored.

Avratanamamantranam Jatimatropajivinam  I

Sahasrasaha Sametanam Parisatvam Na Vidyate 

II XII / 64 II

Those devoid of Vrata  belong to lower orders by birth. Even thousands of them are not eligible to constitute an institution.

Herein, Vrata  refers to entire spectrum of ascetic pursuits, learning and other Vedic  practices. One cannot confer upon oneself any specified Varna  merely on the basis of birth in a family alone. One ought to strive intensely to be able to qualify for the same. Those devoid of Vrata  are entirely inconsequential and any number of them cannot congregate to constitute an influential institution to reckon with.

Sarvamatmani Sampasyetsaccasacca Samahitaha  I

Sarvam Hyatmani Sampasyannadharme Kurute Manaha  II XII / 67 II

The enlightened one who perceives Sat  and Asat  in Paramatma, may never be inclined towards Adharma  as he holds Him, omniscient.

Sat  is the Real, Asat  is the unreal and Adharma, utter absence of righteousness. Enlightened ones are endowed with VivekaJnana  i.e. discriminative wisdom by virtue of which they perceive Sat  and Asat  discriminatively. They are the ones who effectively eschew Asat  while incessantly pursuing Sat. Blessed with such a discriminative pursuit, they are never inclined towards Adharma  as they perceive all beings existing within the Being of Paramatma  including themselves.

Atmaiva Devatah Sarvah Sarvamatmanyavasthitam  I

Atma Hi Janayatyesam Karmayogam Saririnam 

II XII / 68 II

Paramatma  alone governs all Deva-s, Karmaphala  for all beings and holds the universe within His Being.

Paramatma  is the Supreme Absolute, highest of all entities vested with all possible, conceivable faculties and attributes. Entire universe is existing within His being and He governs celestial activities of all Deva-s on their subtle plane of existence. Karma-s enacted by all beings and respective Karmaphala-s are governed and administered by Him alone. 

Prasasitaram Sarvesamaniyamasamanorapi  I 

Rukmabham Svapnadhigamyam Viddyattam Purusam Param  II XII / 69 II  

That who governs all, exists as subtle to subtlest, Self-effulgent, perceivable only in the state of Samadhi, be cognised as Paramatma.  

Paramatma  is the Supreme Absolute as He governs entire universe and all it’s activities. He is omni-existent as he pervades all planes of existence from subtle to subtlest. Paramatma  is Self-Effulgent as He does not require any other source of effulgence being the ultimate source of effulgence Himself. Being so subtle, rather subtlest, he is impossible to be perceived through gross senses of a Seer. He is perceptible and cognisable only through subtle consciousness by highly advanced Seers in the state of Samadhi. Owing to His ultimate subtlety, He is omni-present and immortal.

Etameke Vadantyagnim Manumanye Prajapatim  I

Indrameke Pare Pranamapare Brahma Sasvatam 

II XII / 70 II

This One is variously known as Agni, Manu, Indra, Prana  or even Brahma, by some.

The Supreme, Absolute One is the Ultimate One alone. Since He encompasses all attributes and faculties, he is perceived and cognised variously by all based on their propensities, inclinations and mode of adorations. He may be called Agni, Manu, Indra, Prana, Brahma  etc. owing to all their functions being vested in Him ultimately.

Evam Yaha Sarvabhutesu Pasyatyatmanamatmana  I

Sa Sarvasamatametya Brahmabhyeti Param Padam 

II XII / 72 II  

Thus, the one who perceives Paramatma  in all beings, regards all as one’s equal, attains the highest accolade of Param Brahma.

First and foremost attribute of Supreme Divinity is to regard everyone as His equal as He identifies everyone with Himself in absolute terms. Such a perfect identification with all beings renders Him ubiquitous and all pervasive. In absence of these attributes, no one may be eligible to be privileged with the glory of being Paramatma.

 

All these injunctions and mandates are entirely Varna-neutral.

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MANUSMRITI IS VARNA NEUTRAL – 11

MANUSMRITI  IS THE MOST ENLIGHTENED, PERFECT AND THE GREATEST CIVIL CODE EVER KNOWN TO HUMANITY.

In this series only those Sloka-s have been selected for exposition that confront all misgivings / untrue perceptions about the wisdom of Manusmrti  prevailing all around and facilitate accurate interpretation.

 

Akurvanvihitam Karma Ninditam Ca Samacaran  I

Prasaktascendriyarthesu Prayascattiyate Naraha 

II XI / 1 II

Rituals enshrined in scriptures not being practised, enacting prohibited Karma-s and indulgence with Indriya-s demand Prayascitta.

Pertaining to Yajna, Upanayana, Veda-s etc., plethora of rituals have been prescribed in scriptures on how to pursue them and when. There is also a large number of Karma-s that are prohibited too viz. alcoholism, violence, indulgence with organs of perception. Prayascitta  is the Tapa  dedicated to the purpose of obliterating Samskara-s of such regressive Karma-s. Any one violating injunctions of scriptures is entitled to accomplish penitentiary measures to atone for the sins committed. Catalogue of Karma-s to be pursued diligently and a catalogue of Karma-s not to be pursued at all, both constitute an integral element of the social order of society as envisioned in Manusmriti.

Akamataha Krtam Papam Vedabhayasena  Suddhyati  I

Kamatastukrtam Mohatprayascitaiha Prthagvidhaiha 

II XI / 3 II

Sins committed reluctantly are dissolved by pursuit of Veda-s, Dhyana  etc. while conscious acts of sins by a plethora of other means.

In this Sutra, Maharsi Manu  has classified reprehensible Karma-s into two orders, one accomplished reluctantly and the other, consciously. It is quite natural that severity of retribution for both the orders would be substantially different, less severe for the former and rigorous for the later. Sins committed reluctantly may be dissolved by pursuit of Veda-s, Dhyana, conduct consecrated etc. These are not only capable of dissolving Samskara-s of Karma-s enacted but also elevating oneself spiritually to greater heights.

Retribution for Karma-s enacted consciously has been prescribed in subsequent Sutra-s.

Prayascitam Cikirsanti Vikarmasthastu Ye Dvijaha I

Brahamana Ca Parityaktastesamapyetadadiset 

II XI / 7 II

Dvija-s having enacted Vikarma-s as also those who eschewed Veda-s, may consecrate by pursuing aforesaid ascetic pursuits.

Dvija-s i.e. Brahmana, Ksatriya  and Vaisya  who have invited regressive destiny upon themselves owing to actions not conforming to Dharma  as well as those who have discontinued study of Veda-s owing to any reason whatsoever, have the way open before them to redeem themselves again. For the specific purpose, ascetic pursuits as described above in preceding Sutra-s may be invoked and practised to obliterate those Samskara-s.

Vedoditanam Nityanam Karmanam Samatikrame  I

Snatakavratalopam Ca Praysacittamabhojanam 

II XI / 8 II

Prayascitta  of Upavasa  for a day ordained for those not pursuing Vedic Karma-s or neglecting Upavasa-s for Brahmacarya.

Upavasa  is the Tapa  of fasting for the whole day accompanied by rituals of worship and Japa  i.e. incessant chanting of a designated Mantra. Prayascitta  i.e. penitence through Tapa  is an effective means to dissolve regressive Karma  of neglecting pursuit of Veda-s or Upavasa-s associated with the Asrama  of Brahmacarya.

Anuktaniskratinam Tu Papanamapanuttaye  I

Saktim Caveksya papam Ca Prayascittam Prakalpayet 

II XI / 9 II

Where Prayascitta  is not defined, may be specified based on capabilities of the penitent and severity of offence.

There may an occasion when an offence has not been specified together with it’s Prayascitta  owing to any reason whatsoever. In all probability, such offences are not very significant in nature and severity of Prayascitta  may be minimal. Quantum of penitence may be decided by erudite elders or enlightened ones in community after carefully examining capabilities of the offender or heinousness of the regressive Karma.

Yairabhyupayairenansi Manavo Vyapakarsati  I

Tanvoabhyupayanvaksyami Devarsipitrasevitan 

II XI / 10 II

Ways and means to eschew regressive Karma-s by men as practised by Rsi-s, erudite ones and elders, now being expounded.

After commenting on ways and means to dissolve Samskara-s left behind by regressive Karma-s, Maharsi Manu  expands domain of the contemplation deeper into the roots of enactment of regressive Karma itself. Ways and means have been suggested so as to stay away from the propensity of committing such Karma-s at all. These measures are dedicated to eradication of Samskara-s through prevention of indulgence. All these ways and means have been pursued by Maharsi-s, Rsi-s and scholars of various hues. Accuracy and sanctity of these means have been affirmed by them beyond question.

Etairdvijatayah Sodhya Vratairaviskrtainasaha  I

Anaviskrtapapanstu Mantrairhomaisca Sodhayet 

II XI / 19 II

For unmanifest and manifest Karma-s of Dvija-s, Vrata  and Mantra  recitation are the means, respectively.

Unmanifest Karma  is the one that has not been executed while manifest Karma  is the executed one. Till the stage of desire to enact Karma, it remains unmanifest i.e. subtle Karma  enacted only on the plane of mind and intellect. Vrata-s as prescribed before and recitation of a dedicated Mantra  are the recourse to self-purification respectively.

Yatha Yatha Naroadharmam Svayam Krtvaanubhasate  I

Tatha Tatha Tvacevahistenadharmena Mucyate 

II XI / 21 II

As man confesses to more and more after committing a felonious Karma, he is emancipated progressively like a snake-skin.

Snakes change their skin periodically and move out of their bodies gradually with effort. Similarly, a sinner is gradually emancipated from shackles of Samskara-s of past regressive Karma-s committed if he confesses it before people as many as possible. Such multiple confessions not only gradually purify mind and intellect but also lead to augmentation of acceptability among others by diluting the perception of being a sinner. Acceptance of Karma  is a measure of retribution and penitence.

Evam Samcintya  Manasa Pretya Karmaphalodayam  I

Manovangamurtibhirnityam Subham Karma Samacaret  II XI / 24 II

Karmaphala  is inevitable even after demise” be the guiding perception prevailing in mind while enacting Karma-s with mind, speech and body.

Proceeds of Karma  enacted are absolutely inescapable. If this cosmic axiom weighs heavily in mind and intellect incessantly, one would be necessarily discreet and wise while selecting Karma  to be enacted. Most of the felony would be cautiously avoided owing to the dominance of the cease and desist warning of inevitability of Karmaphala.

Yasminkarmanyasya Krte Manasah Syadalaghavam  I

Tasminstavattapah Kuryadyavattustikaram Bhavet 

II XI / 26 II

Having committed evil Karma, Prayascitta  through Tapa  be pursued till entire inner being is consecrated.

After regressive Karma  is committed advertently or inadvertently, measures of Prayascitta  must continue till the moment of complete purity of inner being is re-attained, entire Samskara  of the Karma  is irreversibly dissolved, sense of bliss and fulfilment occupy entire space on the inner consciousness. Such a sense of fulfilment is a testimony of the exalted state of inner being attained after subtle purification.

Yathaidhastejasam Vanhiha Praptam Nirdahati Ksanat  I

Tatha Jnanagnina Papam Sarvam Dahati Vedavid 

II XI / 28 II

As blaze of fire burns wood, Vedic Jnana  incinerates Samskara-s of all evil Karma-s.

Fuels like wood are burnt and charred by fire into non-existence. Similar is the strength of wisdom of Veda-s, pursuit of which incinerates imprints of entire spectrum of Karma-s rendered. Dissolution of Samskara-s from the domain of Citta renders one sanctified, eligible for much higher.

 

All these injunctions and mandates are entirely Varna-neutral.

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MANUSMRITI IS VARNA NEUTRAL – 10

MANUSMRITI  IS THE MOST ENLIGHTENED, PERFECT AND THE GREATEST CIVIL CODE EVER KNOWN TO HUMANITY.  

In this series only those Sloka-s have been selected for exposition that confront all misgivings / untrue perceptions about the wisdom of Manusmrti  prevailing all around and facilitate accurate interpretation.

 

Vaisyastu Krtsamskarah Krtva Daraparigraham  I

Vartayam Nityayuktaha Syatpasunam Caiva Raksane 

II X / 1 II

After completition of all Samskara-s, Vaisya  must engage himself in trade and tending animals after being betrothed.

After all Samskara-s are successfully accomplished and education in Guru’s hermitage completed, Vaisya  is expected to pursue the profession of trade and animal care assigned to the Varna  after being married and settled as a householder.

Sarasaram Ca Bhandanam Desamam Ca Gunagunan  I

Labhalabham Ca Panyanam Pasunam Parivardhanam 

II X / 4 II

Vaisya  must know merits and demerits of ware, salient features of countries, loss-profit of sale ware and methods of conservation of animals.

Vaisya  must be conversant with all articles and objects that may matter in his profession of trade and animal care. He is expected to know profit and loss associated with all tradeable objects as well as methods of conservation of animals. He must also know distant regions and territories where he may have to travel in course of his profession of trade.

Vipranam Vedavidusam Grhasthanam Yasasvinam  I

Susrusaiva Tu Sudrasya Dharmo Naisreyasah Parah 

II X / 7 II

Serving Brahmana-s being knower of Veda-s and accomplished householders is the natural Dharma  of Sudra-s.

Only reason for being Sudra  is aversion to learning. In absence of learning and erudition, only occupation left for a Sudra  is serving those who are engaged in service of society and humanity on higher planes of rendition. It is well established that Sudra-s enjoy a respectable domain in Maharsi Manu’s ordered society and they are mandated to serve only the accomplished ones.

Sucirutkrstasusrusumrduvaganahamkrtaha  I

Brahmanadyasrayo Nityamutkrstam Jatimasnute 

II X / 8 II

Sudra  serving accomplished ones of Brahamana  and other Varna-s, soft-spoken, devoid of ego, pure and consecrated internally, are attained to Dvija Varna.

Even conscientious pursuit of SudraDharma  too, opens doors to higher planes of existence as selfless pursuit of one’s SvaDharma  leads to self-consecration followed by emancipation from Maya  ultimately. Serving three Varna-s by Sudra-s is as sacrosanct as learning of Veda-s by Brahamana-s, warfare by Ksatriya-s and pursuing commerce by Vaisya-s. Absence of egoism ensures, ripples of divinity emanating from the Absolute Infinite are duly received and assimilated.

Brahmanaha Ksatriyo Vaisyastrayo Varna Dvijatayaha  I

Caturtha Ekajatistu Sudro Nasti Tu Pamcamaha 

II X / 9 II

Brahamana, Ksatriya  and Vaisya  are Dvija  while the fourth one being once born Sudra. No fifth one exists.

As a measure of re-assertion, Maharsi Manu  has unequivocally established, only four Varna-s exist with Brahmana, Ksatriya, Vaisya  as Dvija  and fourth one, Sudra. First three are Dvija  i.e. twice born with purported second birth meant for initiation into Vedic  education. Since Sudra  do not opt for Vedic  precepts, they are regarded as ‘once born’. Entire society is thus accounted for within the spectrum of four Varna-s and no Varna  as fifth one has been provided for.

Mukhabahurupajjanam Ya Loke Jatayo Bahih  I

Mlecchavacascaryavacaha Sarve Te Dasyavaha Smrtaha  II X / 10 II

Other than these four in society, irrespective of whether they speak Aryana  or Mleccha, are all known as Dasyu.

All those who do not belong to either of four Varna-s of Brahmana, Ksatriya, Vaisya  or Sudra, have been categorised as Dasyu-s by Maharsi Manu. It does not really matter which language they speak, whether rich language of the Aryana-s or the inferior one of Mleccha-s. Thus, order of Varna-s is sacrosanct and inviolable for the sake of smooth organisation of society.

Sudro Brahmanatameti Brahmanascaiti Sudratam  I

Ksatriyajjatamevam Tu Vidyadvaisyattathaiva Ca 

II X / 14 II

Sudra  may become Brahamana  and Brahamana, Sudra. Same is true with Ksatriya  and Vaisya  too.

Four orders of Varna-s of Brahamana, Ksatriya, Vaisya  and Sudra  are meticulously defined on the basis of abundance of Guna-s alone. No other criterion exerts any role in that process. As a measure of natural corollary, if a Brahamana  loses his attributes essential for being a Brahamana, he may be re-categorised Ksatriya, Vaisya  or even Sudra  based on abundance of Guna  in a revised situation. Primacy of Guna-s and Karma-s is thus, re-established being sacrosanct.

 

All these injunctions and mandates are entirely Varna-neutral.

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MANUSMRITI IS VARNA NEUTRAL – 9

MANUSMRITI  IS THE MOST ENLIGHTENED, PERFECT AND THE GREATEST CIVIL CODE EVER KNOWN TO HUMANITY.  

In this series only those Sloka-s have been selected for exposition that confront all misgivings / untrue perceptions about the wisdom of Manusmrti  prevailing all around and facilitate accurate interpretation.

Kaleadata Pita Vacyo Vacyascanupayanpatiha  I

Mrte Bhartari Putrastu Vacyo Maturaraksita  II IX / 2 II

Father not marrying off daughter, husband neglecting wife and son neglecting his widowed mother are condemnable.

Dereliction of responsibilities in general, is a deplorable conduct. Within confines of family, every individual is mandated to discharge his responsibilities towards his daughter, wife and widowed mother. Refusing to shoulder responsibility of marriage of daughter, neglecting wife in the capacity of husband and protecting mother after his father’s demise, are evil acts of omission. These omissions towards kin are deplorable and have been condemned by Maharsi Manu.

Suksmebhyoapi Prasangebhyaha Striyo Raksya Visesataha  I

Dvayorhi Kulayoha Sokamavaheyuraraksitaha  

II IX / 3 II

Women must be protected from going astray lest they invite disrepute and agony to both families.

Women members of every family must be protected from being trapped into vicious holes or wandering into disrepute. Responsibility of providing protection lies with all male members of the family. Women must be looked after well to guard them from dubious onslaughts from undesirable elements.

Svam Prasutim Caritram Ca Kulamatmanameva Ca  I

Svam Ca Dharmam Prayatnena Jayam Raksanhi Raksati  II IX / 5 II

Those striving to protect their women alone are able to monitor conduct of their progeny, guard themselves, their clan and Dharma.

As women in a family and society at large, constitute foundation of well-being of family, society and nation at large, they must be protected zealously. When women are protected in a family, family prospers. So is true with society and nation. Hence, key to prosperity of all lies in safety and well-being of women members of family and society. When women are protected, children of the family do well and prosper, one is able to protect himself and family. Dharma  is protected only in a society and nation wherein women are safe and secured. Scriptures have laid special emphasis on protection and liberty of women.

Na Kascidyositaha Saktaha Prasahya Pariraksitum  I

Etairupayayogaistu Sakyastah Pariraksitum  II IX / 8 II

No one can guard women from going astray under coercion but tactfully through these various means.

Women are human beings as much as are men. It is impossible to subjugate a human being for long. Power of coercion does not last long as it is power through persuasion that is effective most. Women cannot be protected by virtue of coercion. In the name of protection, women cannot be confined bereft of personal liberty. However, this protection may be effectively extended through persuasion and conciliation by adopting various means as detailed by Maharsi Manu  hereinafter.

Araksita Grhe Ruddhah Purusairaptakaribhiha  I

Atmanamatmana Yastu Rakseyustah Suraksitaha  

II IX / 10 II

Because even women confined within home by trustworthy father, mother, spouse etc. are not really secured unless capable of protecting themselves.

External security provided by even trustworthy and capable close relatives too, is not enough as even that may suffer miscarriage eventually. Grosser instincts or subdued vanities may occupy better half of a man any moment. Hence, foremost requirement for women is to know how to observe all essential security measures for themselves to pre-empt any eventuality from any quarter. They must be imparted necessary lessons too, in this regard. Securing oneself through own conscious efforts is the best measure of being safe.

Panam Durjanasamsargah Patya Ca Virahoatanam  I

Svapnoanyagehavasaca Narisandusanani Sat  II IX / 11 II

Consuming intoxicants, being in nefarious company, estrangement from spouse, wandering purposelessly and dwelling in other’s home desecrate women.

These are the measures that ruin women without fail and the scars that are left behind, may continue throughout one’s life. Maharsi Manu  has cautioned women to refrain from all these vices so as to protect themselves effectively.

Prajanartham Mahabhagaha Pujarha Grhadiptayaha  I

Striyah Sriyasca Gehesu Na Visesoasti Kascana  

II IX / 13 II

For procreation and advent of great fortune are women in homes brightening household, adorable as Laksmi, all being identical.

Laksmi  is the highly venerable deity of wealth and fortune. Women have been identified as incarnates of Laksmi  in our homes. They are abundantly adorable constituting foundation of our homes. Similarly, women are identified as harbinger of wealth and fortune, continuance of inheritance through procreation and the spark that brightens the entire household. Without women as fundamental base of a household, the household is unworthy of any significance. Prosperity of a family begins with joy and well-being of women members of the family alone. No family can flourish if women are neglected and derogated.

Yeaksatrino Bijavantaha Paraksetrapravapinaha  I

Te Vai Sasyasya Jatasya na Labhante Phalam Kvacit  

II IX / 19 II

Those with seeds yet without field, sow in other’s field, certainly cannot claim ownership of the proceeds.

Anyone with seeds albeit without farmland shall be compelled to sow that in the field of someone else. In such a situation, owner of seeds cannot claim ownership of farm proceeds. At best, seed-owner may be compensated appropriately for the miniscule contribution to the field owner. Similarly, if a woman is constrained to procreate with the contribution of a man other than her husband, ownership of the child shall rest with the mother and her spouse alone.

Vidhavayam Niyogarthe Nirvrtte Tu Yathavidhi  I

Guruvacca Snusavacca Varteyatam Parasparam  

II IX / 26 II

Once Niyoga  is duly accomplished with a widow, she ought to be regarded as GuruPatni  or PutraVadhu  as the case may be.

As soon as the objective of Niyoga  is realised, widow in question must be treated as GuruPatni  i.e. Guru’s spouse in case of her being elder sibling’s wife or as PutraVadhu  i.e. daughter-in-law in case of her being younger sibling’s wife. Core value innate in the injunction is that sanctity of relations before and after the task of Niyoga must be preserved under any circumstance as Niyoga  has been devised to address only a set of special circumstances.

Yasya Mriyeta Kanyaya Vaca Satye Krte Patiha  I

Tamanena Vidhanena Nijo Vindeta Devaraha  II IX / 28 II

If a groom expires after betrothal, bride may be duly wedded to younger sibling of the deceased.

In case of the eventuality of bridegroom’s demise after betrothal, the bride affected may be betrothed to his younger sibling. Such an alliance is perfectly legitimate, as mandated by Maharsi Manu.

Vidhaya Prosite Vrttim Jivenniyamamasthita  I

Prosite Tvavidhayaiva Jivecchilpairagarhitaiha  

II IX / 30 II

If one goes distant after arranging for livelihood, his woman must live and remain chaste. In absence of livelihood, she may go vocational to survive. 

When one is compelled to move out in search of occupation, he is bound to arrange honourable livelihood for his wife during his prolonged absence. However, if such a means of livelihood fails to concretise, the woman enjoys liberty of selecting an honourable vocation for a dignified life to live.

Kamamamaranattisthedu Grhe Kanyartumatyapi  I

Na Caivainam Prayacchettu Gunahinaya Karhicit  

II IX / 34 II

Even if she is constrained to survive as spinster in her father’s home, she must not be betrothed to an undeserving suitor.

So emphatic is Maharsi Manu  in selecting right groom for a girl that he even goes to the extent of complete denial of alliance being equally acceptable in absence of suitable groom. Not only life with an unsuitable groom turns miserable but also may it invite grave risk to her safety and security. Remaining spinster for the rest of her life in her father’s home is perfectly acceptable in such an extra-ordinary situation.

Prajanartham Striyaha Srstaha Santanartham Ca Manavaha  I

Tasmatsadharano Dharmah Srutau Patnya Sahoditaha  II IX / 37 II

Women having been raised for procreation and men for continuance, mandated is in Sruti  that both shall accomplish all rituals and errands pertaining to Dharma  together.

Continuation of humanity is ensured by man and woman together through procreation. None of them is capable of accomplishing it solo. When complimentarity of both is so sacrosanct and undeniable, how can they perform sacred rituals separately ? According to the injunction, every sacred ritual pertaining to Dharma  must be performed together, by both.

Anyonyasyavyabhicaro Bhavedamaranantikaha  I

Esa Dharmah Samasena Jneyah Stripunsayoh Paraha  

II IX / 38 II

No violation of matrimonial sanctity and separation till death, be allowed with that being the essence of Dharma  between man and woman.

Conjugal alliance between man and woman constitutes foundation of family, society and nation. That one reason alone consecrates this one relationship between man and woman as the most important one among all other relations viz. mother-son, father-daughter and brother-sister. All other relations in society originate from this relationship alone. Sanctity of the relationship must be held inviolable irrespective of circumstances or adversities. Maharsi Manu  ordained it as cardinal element of Dharma  between man and woman wherein separation occurs only with death.

Urdhvam Pitusca Matusca Sametya Bharatarah Samam  I

Bhajeranpaitrikam Rikthamanisaste Hi Jivatoha  

II IX / 41 II

After demise of father and mother, all brothers may equally divide entire property bequeathed among themselves to which no claim of ownership is entertainable till they are alive.

Property bequeathed by parents is directed to be divided among all sons equally. So long as parents are alive, sons cannot stake claim of ownership on their property. This one is an abundant social security measure mandated by Maharsi Manu  for parents growing old and helpless with passage of age and time in their own interest and well-being.

Jyestha Eva Tu Grhniyatpitryam Dhanamasesataha  I

Sesastamupajiveyuyathaiva Pitaram Tatha  II IX / 42 II

Eldest son may inherit entire wealth bequeathed and all younger brothers may continue staying as they did with their father.

This one is an alternate disposition to the option of equal sharing among all sons. If eldest son is adored like a father figure by younger siblings and they agree to continue as before, eldest son may inherit all wealth and accept entire responsibility of his siblings as his father had done for all his sons. In this arrangement, younger sons continue live life as they did earlier with their eldest brother being their provider and guardian.

Svebhyonasebhyastu Kanyabhyah Pradadyurbhratarah Prthak  I

Svatsvandasaccaturbhagam Patitah Syuraditsavaha  

II IX / 49 II

One fourth of every son’s share be allocated to spinster sister with refusal to comply with being condemnable.

For unmarried sister if any, all brothers are called upon to set aside one-fourth share to be assigned to her. Being unwedded, she enjoys the social status of son in the family and her brothers are primarily responsible for her well-being.

Yathaivatma Tatha Putrah Putrena Duhita Sama  I

Tasyamatmani Tisthantyam Kathamanyo Dhanam Haret  II IX / 52 II

Like one’s own Atma, is that of son and daughter too, is like son. With one’s own Atma  like daughter, how can anyone else claim bequeathed wealth.

Son has always been regarded as one’s own Atma  i.e. the Self. Maharsi Manu  herein ordains that daughter is as much one’s own Atma  as is one’s son. Hence in absence of son, daughter is as much worthy of inheritance as is son. In such a situation, entire inheritance must be bequeathed to daughter alone.

Matustu Yautakam Yat Syatkumaribhaga Eva Saha  I

Dauhitra Eva Ca Haredaputrasyakhilam Dhanam  

II IX / 53 II

Mother’s possessions belong to daughter alone in addition to the wealth of maternal grandfather not having a son.

Whatever a woman receives from her parents and brothers, must be inherited by her daughter alone. Even possessions of maternal grand-father without being blessed with a son, also belong to her.

Upapanno Gunaih Sarvaih Putro yasya Tu Dattrimaha  I

Sa Haretaiva Tadriktham Sampraptoapyanyagotrataha  II IX / 56 II

An adopted son endowed with noble virtues and piety, is entitled to inherit legacy of his adopted father.

If an adopted son is well-accomplished and gifted with all attributes required to be a noble son, he deserves and entitled to inherit entire possessions of the person who had adopted him. Decision on inheritance ought to be guided and governed by merits of the person concerned and least by emotive considerations.

Yaaniyuktaany- atah Putram Devaradvaapyavapnuyat  I

Tam Kamajamarikthiyam Vrthotpannam Pracaksate  

II IX / 59 II

Son born to a woman from other source or younger sibling of spouse without undergoing Niyoga  is a lust child, unwanted and not entitled to inheritance.

What has been underscored herein is sanctity of social norms represented by Niyoga, purity and piety of relations. If a woman violates cardinality of Niyoga  and procreates out of sheer lust, the procreation is deemed defiled and undesirable. Son born to such an alliance is unwanted and never entitled to lawful inheritance even if he is sired by younger sibling of her husband.

Sa Cedaksatayonih Syadgatapratyagataapi Va  I

Paunarbhavena Bhartra Sa Punah Samskaramarhati  

II IX / 60 II

If chastity remains intact in spite of being betrothed and having been to his home, she is entitled to enter into an alliance afresh.

If a betrothal has not been carried out to it’s logical end, no sanctity remains and there is no merit in carrying on with the burden of relationship. Such a married woman is regarded as unmarried and absolutely eligible to undergo marriage again.

Adhyagnyadhyavahanikam- Dattam Ca Pritikarmani  I

Mratramatrapitrapraptam Sadvidham Stridhanam Smratam  II IX / 63 II

Six types of Stridhana  gifted during matrimonial rituals, by her father while being sent to her spouse’ home, by spouse on occasions of joy, received from brother, mother and father, are in vogue.

Stridhana  is the wealth and possessions that is exclusively owned by woman alone and not shared by anyone else in the family. This is the wealth woman owns exclusively and authorised to bequeath to anyone of her liking.

Na Nirharam Striyah Kuryuh Kutumbad Bahumadhyagat  I

Svakadapi Ca Vittaddhi Svasya Bharturanajnaya  

II IX / 67 II

Women must not surreptitiously segregate wealth in fractions in a large family either for excessive conservation or profligacy as well as spending her own wealth without consent of her spouse.

If a woman is extravagant or too parsimonious with respect to her wealth, it is undesirable. She must not save or spend excessively which may compel her to deduct varying amounts of money from various members of her large family. Such a situation invariably leads to privation and gross inconvenience to all in her family which may finally culminate into an unenviable state of affairs to contend with, in the family.

Anansau Klibpatitau Jatyandhabadhirau Tatha  I

Unmattajadamukasca Ye Ca Kecinnirindriyaha  

II IX / 69 II

Sterile, blind, deaf, insane, moron, dumb, incapable and disabled with an organ cannot claim share in wealth being incapable of it’s security or proper use.

Such persons with physical or mental disabilities may not be capable of looking after wealth if assigned to them. Also, they may not be able to deploy the wealth judiciously. It is always advisable not to assign any share to them and the responsibility to look after them must be accepted by the entire family.

Sarvesamapi Tu Nyayyam Datum Saktya Manisina  I

Grasacchadanamatyantam Patito Hyadadbhavet  

II IX / 70 II

But the wise one must compulsorily provide food, clothes etc. appropriately otherwise regarded as the fallen one.

All those, wise and capable ones are called upon to act as providers and protectors for all those disabled ones, unable to fend for themselves. They are mandated to provide for the same and any dereliction in this regard shall amount to a reprehensible conduct.

Vidyadhanam Tu Yadyasya Tattasyaiva Dhanam Bhavet  I

Maitryamaudvahikam Caiva Madhuparkikameva Ca  

II IX / 72 II

Wealth attained owing to knowledge, friendship, wedding and being adorable belongs to the receiver alone.

Nature of transaction of such a wealth is profoundly individualised as these are attained after individual’s own efforts and merits. It is earned through one’s knowledge, received from a friend or on the auspicious occasion of one’s wedding. Adorable personalities too, are often gifted with wealth for a cause. Such a wealth attained is beyond the domain of any claim of share whatsoever.

Vibhaktah Saha Jivanto Vibhajeranpunaryadi  I

Samastatra Vibhagah Syajjayaisthayyam Tatra Na Vidyate  II IX / 76 II

Once divided to re-join thereafter, everyone’s share is exactly equal with nothing extra for the eldest.

If after first round of division of wealth bequeathed by parents, inheriting brothers re-join to divide a second time, none of them is entitled to a special share for any reason or factor whatsoever. During second round of division, every sibling is entitled to equal share of the pooled wealth and no extra-ordinary claim is entertained. Such a mandate ensures, division is completed smoothly without any attrition of dispute whatsoever.

Sarva Eva Vikarmastha Narhanti Mrataro Dhanam  I

Na Cadattva Kanisthebhyo Jyesthah Kurvita Yautakama  II IX / 80 II

All those brothers engaged in evil acts have no claim to wealth inherited and eldest must not claim before delivering to younger siblings.

All brothers wasting themselves away in felonious acts are not entitled to stake claim to wealth bequeathed and inherited. Even if they stake any claim whatsoever, it must be denied forthwith. Eldest brother must first honour claims of share of his younger siblings before obliging himself with the same. Such a mandate ensures, sanctity of virtues, integrity and fair play is upheld.

Dyutam Samavhyam Caiva Raja Rastrannivarayet  I

Rajantakaranavetau Dvau Dosau Prthiviksitam  

II IX / 86 II

King must cease Dyuta  and Samavhaya  in the state irrevocably as these may destroy kingdoms of kings.

Dyuta  is the sport of gambling with material objects at stake while Samavhyaya  is gambling with live ones. These two are potent vices capable of destroying individuals, families, societies, kingdoms and nations howsoever mighty that they may be. Hence, this vice must be banished from the state altogether irrevocably.

Dyutam Samavhyam Caiva Yah Kuryatkareta Va  I

Tansarvanghatayedraja Sudransca Dvijalinginah  

II IX / 89 II

Those engaged themselves and engaging others in Dyuta  as well as Samavhaya, also Sudra-s disguising themselves as Dvija-s, must be punished corporeally.

As Dyuta  and Samavhaya  are detrimental to the well-being of state and society, these have been mandated to be completely rooted out. Those who indulge with Dyuta and Samavhaya, must be deterred with severe punishment. Also be punished those who present themselves as Dvija-s in spite of beingSudra-s. Integrity is invoked to be maintained in the highest order in order to run the society smoothly and prevent social anarchy.

Kitavankusilavankruran Pakhandasthansca Manavan  I

Vikarmasthamchhaundikansca Ksipram Nirvasayetpurat  II IX / 90 II

Gamblers, cruel despots, charlatans, evil doers, those who earn through vulgar dances, brew and sell liquor must be banished from state.

They are the felonious ones who are unlikely to improve even after punishment howsoever severe or embarrassing that may be. Hence, compulsive gamblers, those with despotic dispositions, earning through dancing to vulgarity, devious and disguised ones, liquor makers and sellers must be expelled from the boundaries of state to ensure well-being of all others and the state.

Ye Niyuktastu Karyena Hanyuh Karyani Karyinam  I

Dhanosmana Pacyamanastannih Svankarayennrapaha  II IX / 94 II

Employees of state unable to digest heat of wealth, damaging state assignments of responsibility, must be deprived of all their possessions.  

Employees of state hold very responsible positions of authority, responsibility and accountability. State and their subjects expect high standards of integrity and conduct from state employees. If some of them are unable to resist their desires of vanity, fall into indulgence, then King must act immediately and dis-possess them of all their assets as a measure of stringent retribution as well as deterrence for others.

Nahi Dandaddyate Sakyah Kartum Papavinigrahaha  I

Stenanam Papabuddhinam Nibhratam Caratam Ksitau  II IX / 112 II

Felonious deeds of known thieves, thieves in disguise, other offenders and those with evil dispositions cannot be restrained without retribution. Hence, efforts at retribution must not slacken.

Evil deeds may never be restrained or prevented without awarding every act of offence with the justice that it deserves. Justice dispensed and duly served for a crime is also justice in anticipation for a crime prevented. Hence, every act of evil deed must be acted upon by the King, justice awarded and the offender duly punished. Dispensation of justice is a divine engagement described earlier as an institution of Danda. It must be administered with utmost seriousness that brooks no slackening of efforts whatsoever.

Svamyamatmau Puram Rastram Kosadandau Suhratttatha  I

Sapta Prakrtayo Hyotah Saptangam Rajyamucyate  

II IX / 137 II

SwamiMantriDurgaRastraKosaDanda  and Mitra  are the seven royal traits and the state endowed with these, Kingdom of seven appellations.

Swami  is an enlightened Guru  competent to guide and advise the King; Mantri  is an outstanding minister deft in running the affairs of his state; Durga  is the invincible fort as a bastion of might of the Kingdom; Rastra  is the nation-state endowed with rich, ancient, imperishable heritage; Kosa  is treasury of the state; Danda  is the institution of justice, equity and fair play while Mitra  is friend and well-wisher of the state. A sovereign state is endowed with all these appellations as marks of distinction.

Kalih Prasupto Bhavati Sa Jagrad Dvaparam Yugam  I

Karmasvabhyudyatastreta Vicaranstu Kratam Yugam  

II IX / 145 II

His being in the state of slumber is marked by Kali Yuga, ordinarily awake by Dvapara Yuga, ever engaged in discharging state’s responsibilities by Treta Yuga  and finally, zealously engrossed in development of subjects and the state, by Satya Yuga.

When a King is inactive and indifferent towards affairs of the state, it is akin to Kali Yuga  characterised by inertia. When the King is ordinarily active and attending affairs of the state, it is akin to Dvapara Yuga, era of beginning of decline of Dharma  before advent of Kali YugaTreta Yuga  is marked by the rule wherein King is constantly engaged in honouring all commitments and responsibilities of the state while Satya Yuga, by intense development of the state and subjects in all aspects, perspectives. In this rule, King has a well-defined vision for all round development of all accompanied by renaissance of Satya  i.e. truth and Dharma  i.e. righteousness.

Indrasyarkasya Vayosca Yamasya Varunasya Ca  I

Candrasyagneha Prithivyasca Tejovrttam Nrapascret  

II IX / 146 II

King must deport himself in harmony with IndraSuryaVayuYamaVarunaCandramaAgni  and Prthvi alone.

IndraSuryaVayuYamaVarunaCandramaAgni  and Prthvi  are Deva-s i.e. celestial deities who have individualised characteristics and celestial roles to enact. While discharging their celestial obligations, they adhere to the highest conceivable norms of conduct and interactions. Every King is expected to emulate highest canons of conduct while managing affairs of the state and dealing with subjects.

 

All these injunctions and mandates are entirely Varna-neutral.

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EKATMA MANAVAVADA : VEDANTA DARSANA : Pt. DEENDAYALA UPADHYAYA

Pt. Deendayala Upadhyaya  was one of the most incisive strategic thinkers in the country. His extra-ordinary genius lay in picking up all salient verticals of nation’s history and heritage, entire wisdom enshrined in Sanatana  scriptures, narrations of ancient Rsi-s and Maharsi-s, fundamentals of cultural values, then proceeded to methodically weave an economic / political / social philosophy for the nation that is now turning out to be a formidable alternative to western capitalism and eastern socialism. It is more appropriate to say, last resort of refuge for the world when all other philosophies have miserably collapsed across the world. In years and decades to come, Pt. Upadhyaya  may even surpass Keynes / Milton Friedman / Adams / Karl Marx in so far as accuracy, vision and foresightedness of his socio-economic philosophy are concerned. Probably it was for the first time that an exhibition was launched on such a wide scale in Nehru Memorial Museum & Library on the occasion of his 99th birth anniversary to highlight his vision, thoughts and solution to the problems being encountered in the country.

We have our own unique ethos and no foreign ideology is capable of satisfying our ideological thirst or sort out our issues without causing attrition and friction. Nation’s fundamental identity is sacrosanct and inviolable while overseas ideologies are not universal. Moreover, no nation can ignore their history and Bharatiya  culture is an integrated one visualising entire world as a Universal Human Family in the spirit of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakuma. Perfect harmony is inevitable among all varying mutables within every individual, family, society and nation. Overseas ideologies are neither all encompassing nor grounded to the core values originating from the Absolute Oneness.    

Pt. Upadhyaya  was member of RSS, founder of Bharatiya Jana Sangha  which later metamorphosed into Bharatiya Janata  Party and formulated his socio-economic philosophy in the name of Ekatma Manavavada  i.e. Integral Humanism. Draft of the philosophy was extensively debated in Jan. 1965 by Pritinidhi Sabha  of Bharatiya Jana Sangha  held in Vijayawada. He later expounded it vividly in a series of lectures delivered in Mumbai and Pune.  

Ekatma Manavavada  is the practical aspect of Vedanta Darsana, Supreme Wisdom expounded by Avatara-s, Rsi-s and Maharsi-s spanning thousands of years. If cost effective technology / manufacturing are practical aspects of study of engineering without which technical knowledge is worthless, surgery and medical treatment are practical aspects of study of medical science without which medical science itself is worthless, Ekatma Manavavada  is the practical / applicable aspect of Vedanta Darsana  without which serious question marks would be raised on the authenticity of Vedanta Darsana  itself. As soon as existence of Atma  and Paramatma  is established and accepted, Dharma  springs into existence spontaneously to define intra-Atma, inter-Atma  and AtmaParamatma  relationships and related dimensions. Hence Dharma  is the foundation and cornerstone of not only existence of Jivatma  in the world but also how Jivatma  and Paramatma  would interact with each other. Yato Dharmaha Tato Jayaha  and Satyameva Jayate  are the cardinal principles that lay down rules to govern our lives in the world, society, family and country.  

Dharma  is enigmatic as it encapsulates a mysticism of it’s own unique kind nowhere else found. And it is divine too. Every member of family, society, country in various positions of authority and compliance, have a unique Dharma  to follow guided and governed by the situation, responsibilities assigned and accountability mandated. Same is valid with the head of state too. As all Atma-s are equal before Paramatma  barring Karma  performed by them individually, all human beings are equal before law, enjoy the right to equal opportunity barring individual attributes, merits and endeavour undertaken. In other words, everybody enjoys equal right to rule and be ruled over under the umbrella of Dharma  which is sacrosanct. That gives rise to democratic form of governance based on adult franchise strictly conforming to principles of Dharma  as sanctified in Vedanta Darsana. In DharmaRajya, he stated, “tolerance of and respect for all faiths and creeds is an essential feature. Freedom of worship and conscience is guaranteed to all and the state does not discriminate against any one on grounds of religion, either in the formation of policy or in it’s implementation. It is a non-sectarian state and not a theocracy.” Indeed, Dharma Rajya  is a manifest of the sacrosanct ideal of Satyameva Jayate.

Nation is the Soul of a country while state constitutes body / clothes. Dharma  is the Soul of a nation while state, it’s overall governance. While Dharma  is all pervasive, faith / religion neutral, state brooks no discrimination against anyone on the basis of caste, creed or conviction if guided and governed by Dharma. So long as Dharma  is adhered to, state would never degenerate into totalitarianism, arbitrariness or mobocracy. Democratic rights under Dharma  allow every individual to achieve his / her maximum potential, live with honour and dignity. Just as Dharma  is infinite and indivisible, democracy guided by Dharma  too, is unmitigated and unrestrained, “In fact, democracy is indivisible. It cannot be viewed in fragments. Absence of democracy in any one sphere is bound to affect growth of democracy in the rest. Tolerance, dignity of the individual and a feeling of identification with the demos, the people – these are the essentials of democracy. Without these, mere paraphernalia of democracy would be purposeless.” Similarly various identifiable aspects of democracy viz. adult franchise, equality of opportunity etc. must function in complete harmony with one another, “Efforts have to be made to ensure that all these rights complement one another and do not detract from the other’s effect.”     

Ekatma Manavavada  is the philosophy whose time has come howsoever ludicrous may be the response of Congress and CPM. Government of the day is influenced by the doctrine to ensure, equal opportunities to excel, for all. Pt. Deendayala Upadhyaya  was neither a Rightist nor was he a Leftist nor Centrist. He was an ardent EQUAL-IST advocating, all are equal and equal opportunity for all. As is said in scriptures –

Sarve Bhavantu Sukhinaha, Sarve Santu Niramayaha  I

Sarve Bhadrani Pasyantu, Ma Kascid Duhkhbhagbhavet  II

i.e. may everyone be blissed, may everyone be healthy, immediately gives rise to the concept of Antyodaya, a socio-economic welfare programme to look after last member of the social hierarchy. Concept of Antyodaya  has led to formulation of a plethora of schemes to uplift poorest of the poor which are now a matter of envy for the large army of capitalists and socialists across the world. Western capitalism allows unmitigated liberty to private enterprise, degenerating into ‘Survival of the Fittest’, excessive consumerism, profligacy and destruction. On the contrary, Marxism belongs to the other extreme of wisdom which advocates excessive state control over resources and initiatives leading to return of stone age civilisation. For both of them, human body is the end instead of being means to an end to be discovered later. Ekatma Manavavada  alone is the socio-economic philosophy in the world that is dynamically ALL INCLUSIVE in true sense of the term.

Doctrine of Ekatma Manavavada  has never been against western science or state control where it is inevitable. Though these were at the peak of their respective glories during lifetime of Pt. Upadhyaya  yet these failed to even scratch him on surface not to speak of being overwhelmed as had been the case with so many others. With great courage of conviction, he questioned them and proved their superficiality before the nation. He argued that values and verticals of Vedanta Darsana  have always been modern and a state established on those never faded away into obsolescence. Always it rejuvenated and refurbished itself with changing times with augmented relevance while the core remained the same incessantly, “We shall have to end a number of traditions and set in reforms which are helpful in the development of values and of national unity in our society. We shall remove those traditions that obstruct this process.”

Finally, Ekatma Manavavada  explicitly expounds, nation always survives while State may change often. Nation continues while boundaries of State continue to be defined and re-defined. Vedic  scriptures elaborate in detail how in the era of Treta Yuga, nation functioned very well in spite of complete absence State at all ! In the history of Bharata, nation survived all foreign invasions and transfer of regimes while state collapsed several times owing to congeries of factors. State could rise again and again with renewed vigour only because the nation hidden was intact as we took care of the nation even at the cost of state sometimes.

Thus, Ekatma Manavavada  is the landmark philosophical doctrine which begins with “Aham Brahmasmi” i.e. “I am Brahma” and concludes with “Vayam Brahmasmaha” i.e. “We ALL are Brahma.”   

 

Published @ http://patriotsforum.org/ekatma-manavavada-vedanta-darsana-pt-deendayala-upadhyaya/

 

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MANUSMRITI IS VARNA NEUTRAL – 8

MANUSMRITI  IS THE MOST ENLIGHTENED, PERFECT AND THE GREATEST CIVIL CODE EVER KNOWN TO HUMANITY.

In this series only those Sloka-s have been selected for exposition that confront all misgivings / untrue perceptions about the wisdom of Manusmrti  prevailing all around and facilitate accurate interpretation.

 

Vyavaharandidrksustu Brahmanaih Saha Parthivah  I

Mantrajnairmantribhiscaiva Vinitah Pravisetsabham 

II VIII / 1 II

King desirous of attending Vyavahara, may enter Royal Court with humility accompanied by the learned ones, advisers and courtesans.

Vyavahara  is the case pertaining to a dispute which comes up in a royal court for adjudication. If a King desires to hear a case, pour over submissions of both disputants and pass his judgement, then he is expected to enter the Royal Court with utmost humility. Even as head of the court, King is advised not to flaunt his supreme authority or superiority within the court while hearing the case. King sitting in the august position to judge, must be assisted by erudite ones specialising in law, learned advisers and ministers to exercise royal authority.

Institution of Danda  to adjudicate Vyavahara  is a divine assignment and must be accomplished with utmost care and diligence.

Esu Sthanesu Bhuyistham Vivadam Caratama Nrnam  I

Dharmam Sasvatamasritya Kuryatkaryavinirnayam 

II VIII / 8 II

In these Vyavahara-s, disputes of all be attended by resorting to refuge in Dharma.

All disputes and their concerned disputants are mandated to be attended with utmost impartiality and diligence. King ought to strictly adhere to canons of Dharma  while passing his judgement on disputes after duly listening to all sides. While ensconced on the august seat of Danda, King belongs to none and none belongs to the King.

Yada Svayam Na Kuryatu Nrapatih Karyadarsanam  I

Tada Niyunjyadvidvansam Brahamanama Karyadarsane  II VIII / 9 II

Whenever King is unable to attend, he should engage an erudite one to attend disputes.

A King may be sometimes, incapacitated or unable to attend Vyavahara-s in his royal court owing to any reason. As passage to justice should never be inhibited, least alone hurdled, King is called upon to depute a senior and learned scholar well-versed in matters of law and administration of justice to preside over the institution of Danda  in a fair and professional manner. He too, must resort to principles of Dharma  while accomplishing the task.

Yasmindese Nisidanti Vipra Vedavidastrayah  I

Rajnascadhikrto Vidvanbrahmanastam Sabhama Viduh  II VIII / 11 II

Where three scholars of Veda-s are seated alongwith a learned one conversant with the subject, it is Brahmasabha.

Contours of Royal Court have been outlined in this Sloka  by Maharsi Manu. The court comprises of at least three learned scholars of Vedic  wisdom headed by an erudite one appointed by the King. Head of the Court deputed by the King, must be thoroughly conversant with laws and nuances of jurisprudence prevailing in the Kingdom. Such a court is known as Brahmasabha  i.e. Court of Divine Creators. Such a court commands high prestige among all in the Kingdom.

Sabhama Va Na Pravestavyama Vaktavyama Va Samanjasama  I

Abruvanvibruvanvapi Naro Bhavati Kilvisi  II VIII / 13 II

One may refrain from entering into royal court. If entered, ought to declare truth alone. Sinner is the one who acquiesces untruth, opposes truth.

Royal Court is the seat of administration of justice which cannot be accessible to all without a genuine purpose. It is expected of all not to attempt entry into a court unless concerned with an ongoing or outstanding Vyavahara. Everyone who enters into a court and all those who are participating or witnessing court proceedings, ought to speak truth alone, support truth alone by all means and oppose untruth in every possible way. No one inside the court is mandated to remain reticent if untruth in propagated by anyone. All those who do not honour the mandate, commit grave sin as dispensation of justice is a divine errand.

Yatra Dharmo Hyadharmena Satyama Yatranrtena Ca  I

Hanyate Preksamanama Hatastatra Sabhasadah 

II VIII / 14 II

In a court wherein Dharma  is ravaged by Adharma, Satya  by Asatya, all partcipants may be regarded as slain.

Dharma  is righteousness which is supreme and it’s absence is Adharma. Similarly, Satya  is truth and it’s absence, Asatya. A Royal Court appointed to dispense justice, must ensure that justice is done by following principles of Dharma  and Satya. If Dharma  and Satya  are defeated in a court of justice and no participant of royal court’s proceedings protests, then they all should be regarded as worthless and such a court, complete sham of justice.

Maharsi Manu  thus mandates, justice is a divine mission and no one enjoys the liberty of trivialising it.

Vrso Hi Bhagavandharmastasya Yaha Kurute Hyalam  I

Vrasalam Tama Vidurdevastasmaddharmam Na Lopayet  II VIII / 16 II

Bliss and glory emanate from Dharma  alone. Vrasala  are those eradicating Dharma  for Deva-s hence, Dharma  ought not be diluted.

Pursuit of Dharma  alone is the source of all joys and glory as Dharma  alone is the fundamental characteristic of our own Self i.e. Atma. As our real Self is Dharma  itself, our actions and perceptions cannot be violative by being contrary to that. Sages and Seers are all Dharma-Incarnate. So are all Deva-s and Avatara-s. Those who do not pursue Dharma, violate all canons of Righteousness, are regarded as Vrasala  i.e. the degraded ones by Deva-s. For attainment of Absolute Harmony, one has to be in complete harmony with Him. That is possible only by unfailing pursuit of Dharma.

Eka Eva Suhrddharmo Nidhaneapyanuyati Yaha  I

Sarirena Samama Nasama Sarvamanyaddhi Gacchati 

II VIII / 17 II

Dharma  alone is the Suhrda, escorts even after demise while all others are dissolved like body, simultaneously.

Suhrda  is the friend who is ever selfless and a confirmed well-wisher. Maharsi Manu  has mandated, one’s Dharma  alone is one’s Suhrda  as never it demands anything in return and accompanies till one’s ultimate redemption into the Absolute. Like one’s gross body, everything else is perishable yet not one’s Dharma. Hence, pursuit of Dharma  is supreme and sacrosanct.

Padoadharmasya Kartarama Padaha Saksinamrcchati  I

Padaha Sabhasadaha Sarvanpado Rajanamrcchati 

II VIII / 18 II

One fourth of Adharma  committed to the performer, same to witnesses and members of the court, one fourth to the King being attained if principles of Nyaya  not really pursued.

If a Royal Court fails to dispense justice and basic principles of Nyaya  i.e. justice are not followed religiously, share of Adharma  so committed belongs to all i.e. King, Saksi-s i.e. observers, witnesses and Sabhasada-s i.e. members of the court and performer of Adharma  causing failure of Nyaya. Dispensation of Nyaya  is a divine errand and all members present in a court are equally responsible and answerable for all omissions and commissions of the court. Every member of a court present is regarded as participant, mandated to resist and protest vociferously if Nyaya  fails to be delivered.

Raja Bhavatyanenastu Muccyante Ca Sabhasadaha  I

Eno Gacchati Kartarama Nindaarho Yatra Nindyate 

II VIII / 19 II

In a court wherein offender is punished, all are rendered pure with only the offender being attained to sin.

In a court wherein principles of Dharma  are pursued religiously and Nyaya  administered judiciously by punishing the offender, by honouring the honourable ones, by condemning the condemnable, no one is attained to sin except the performer of condemnable offence. Allowing an offence to be ignored without retribution amounts to failure of Nyaya  and enactment of Adharma. This is the Adharma  that punishes all in court for failure to discharge their responsibilities judiciously.

Bahyairvibhavayellingairbhavamantargatama Nrnama  I

Svaravarnengitakaraiscaksusa Cestitena Ca 

II VIII / 20 II

Inner state of being of participants may be perceived from external signs, voice, facial expressions, hints and indications, state of external shapes, eyes and mild actions.

There are several non-conventional ways available to cognise state of mind of every participant in a court particularly the accused, by King. These means are of profound importance and sometimes guide towards right conclusion decisively. External signs may include apparel, body language etc. Nature and quality of voice convey a lot of revelations. Facial expressions viz. turning pale, being ashamed are important signals. Hints and indications elicited by participants particularly accused among themselves viz. not looking straight into eyes, looking here and there etc. profoundly convey thoughts arising in their mind. Shapes taken by mouth, eyes, trembling, perspiring etc. too, are significant indications. Expressions conveyed by eyes are regarded quite reliable. Mild actions by hands and feet viz. rubbing hands, scratching of head or earth, snapping fingers occasionally are also important indications that may reveal veracity of an accusation. In a Royal Court, King must be entirely conversant with all these traditional ways and means to administer justice.

Baladayadikama Rikthama Tavadrajaanupalayet  I

Yavatsa Syatsamavrtto Yavaccatitasaisavaha 

II VIII / 22 II

King must protect inheritance and other wealth of orphans and minors till they attain adolescence or complete Samavartana Samskara.

King has also been mandated to look after entire property and wealth inherited by orphans, minors as their state guardian till the age they turn adolescent or complete their Samavartana Samskara  i.e. learning and education in their respective Gurukula-s. Once appointed tenure in their respective Gurukula-s is successfully completed, when they grow up into adolescence, such a wealth may be handed over to them appropriately. Thus, King is also mandated to act as personal guardian to all those in his kingdom who have no one to look upto.

Adaditatha Sadabhagama Pranastadhigatannrapaha  I

Dasamama Dvadasama Vaapi Satama Dharmamanusmarana  II VIII / 28 II

King may righteously recover sixth, tenth or twelfth fraction as tax out of a wealth retrieved after being lost or destroyed.

If somebody’s wealth is eventually recovered after a long pause of being lost or destroyed, head of the state is justified in claiming a fraction of such a wealth as tax obligation to the state and duly recover that. Quantum of tax obligation may vary, from sixth to tenth or twelfth as the case may be. Absence of deployment of a wealth over a span of time or the state of not it’s being earned in immediate past, does not qualify the wealth to escape taxation or claim any other exemption whatsoever based on those grounds. Long term objective of the directive appears to be eradication of corruption and prevention of leakage points from state’s economy.

Artheapavyayamanama Tu Karanena Vibhavitama  I

Dapayeddhanikasyarthama Dandalesama Ca Saktitaha  II VIII / 37 II

If borrowing is proved yet borrower declines to concede, he may be compelled to refund and penalised appropriately.

A King must see that money borrowed from a lender is duly repatriated by the borrower. If a borrower refuses to accept having borrowed, counters all claims of having borrowed in spite of clinching evidence in support of that, it falls upon the King to ensure by virtue of his royal authority, borrowed money is returned and the defiant borrower punished commensurate with his economic status, amount in question, social status etc.

Abhiyokta Na Ceda Bruyadvaddhyo Dandyasca Dharmataha  I

Na Cetripaksatprabruyaddharmama Prati Parajitaha 

II VIII / 44 II

A complainant who does not speak after filing complaint, deserves to be punished and loses the case after three fortnights of indifference.

After accusing someone in a court, accuser holds the responsibility of providing evidence in support of his complaint for rightful conclusion of the complaint lodged. In case complainant turns indifferent and disinterested, he deserves to be rightly penalised for causing agony and harassment to the accused. If the silence and indifference persist for more than three fortnights, complaint forfeits it’s validity altogether, merits to be dismissed and righteously so.

Yo Yavannihyunnu Vitartha Mithya Yavati Va Vadet  I

Tau Nrpena Hyadharmajnau Dapyau Tad Dvigunama Damam  II VIII / 45 II

If a borrower or lender falsify the amount of transaction, they may be penalised by double of the differential.

A greedy lender may falsely increase the amount lent or a devious borrower may reduce the amount borrowed out of sheer venality. In such a case, King must probe into the entire affair and ascertain correct amount transacted. Double of the differential amount between fudged and correct figures may be imposed as penalty and realised from the truant for the royal exchequer.

Narthasambandhino Napta Na Sahaya Na Vairanaha  I

Na Drstadosaha Kartavya Na Vyadhyarta Na Dusitaha  II VIII / 48 II

Those having financial interactions with a lender, kin, close friends, associates, diseased, tormented, tainted offenders, dubious ones or their foes are not eligible to submit as witnesses.

Explicit directions have been stated with respect to witnesses who may depose in such disputes during proceedings. Kins, friends and associates of either borrower or lender are not eligible as their veracity may be a suspect. Similarly, a diseased or tormented one may not be truthful in anticipation of some relief or reward. Offenders who have been ever once prosecuted and punished cannot be relied upon for their veracity. Finally, those hostile to either of them or dubious ones too, may not be allowed to participate in such proceedings. Witness must be an absolutely impartial, untainted fellow and an ardent practitioner of Dharma.

Sahasesu Ca Sarvesu Steyasamgrahanesu Ca  I

Vagdandayosca Parusye Na Parikseta Saksinaha 

II VIII / 51 II

For offences of forcible oppression, theft, immorality, promiscuity, harsh utterances, witness may not be assessed.

Molestation, oppression, theft, immorality, promiscuity, harsh expressions etc. are the offences which allow exemption of witness if any, from scrutiny. Whosoever claims to be a witness, must be allowed to participate in proceedings, may not be assessed on any parameter of dependability and reliability as stated earlier because witnesses are rare for such offences as these offences are invariably committed in isolation by surprise. Although such a witness is essential, he must be examined for veracity of his submission submitted in royal court.

Svabhavenaiva Yad Bruyustadgrahyama Vyavaharikama  I

Ato Yadanyadvibruyurdharmarthama Tadaparthakam  II VIII / 56 II

All utterances other than what may be natural and feasible, be rejected.

Depositions delivered by witnesses that may not appear to be natural or possible in a real life situation, may be presumed to be concocted ones and rejected. Such a deposition may not be allowed to influence final outcome of dispute by the King. The King may decide to question witnesses on their depositions to confirm extent of veracity and their involvement in the dispute in question.

Satyama Saksye Bruvansaksi Lokanapnoti Puskalan  I

Iha Canuttamama Kirtima Vagesa Brahmapujita 

II VIII / 59 II

Saksi  who utters the truth, attains fame in this and subsequent lives, is attained to higher planes of existence as the Vani  is adored in scriptures.

As the institution of Danda  is divine, contribution of Saksi  i.e. witness, enjoys similar status in it’s import. If a Saksi  utters truth, he attains fame all over for his moral strength not only in incumbent life but also subsequent ones. Such a Vani  is adored in Veda-s and other scriptures as it is regarded to be in complete harmony with the Absolute Truth. Such a conscientious Saksi  is attained to higher Loka-s i.e. planes of existence after dis-incarnation.

Yasminyasminvivade Tu KautasaksyamaKrtama Bhavet  I

Tattatkaryama Nivarteta Krtama Capyakrtama Bhavet  II VIII / 64 II

If false submissions by Saksi-s are discovered later, all such disputes may be re-considered and earlier judgements rescinded.

In a significant measure to uphold Dharma, if a case comes to the knowledge of court wherein renditions of Saksi  turn out to be false and court misled, decision taken by the King may be withdrawn and the entire dispute re-considered and re-tried. Such a court proceeding based on falsified depositions or facts / evidence suppressed, amounts to being ‘never happened’ at all. Re-trial of the case and judgement accorded, may be regarded as the final one replacing actions followed earlier.

Lobhanmohadbhayanmaitratkamatkrodhatthaiva Ca  I

Ajnanadbalabhavacca Saksyama Vitathamucyate 

II VIII / 65 II

Deposition rendered by a Saksi, influenced by Lobha, Moha, Bhaya, Mitrata, Kama, Krodha, Ajnana  and puerility may be concluded to be falsified.

If depositions by a Saksi  are influenced by Lobha  i.e. greed, Moha  i.e. delusion, Bhaya  i.e. fear, Mitrata  i.e. kinship, Kama  i.e. lust and desire, Krodha  i.e. anger, Ajnana  i.e. ignorance and puerility, it may not be the truth, may mislead proceedings towards inappropriate conclusions and decisions. Such a submission leads to utter failure of justice.

Vasisthavihitama Vrddhima Srjedvittavivardhinima  I

Asitibhagama Grhniyanmasadvardhusikaha Sate 

II VIII / 83 II

Moneylender may claim interest on amount lent yet not more than 1.25 percent per month as laid down by erudite economists being the maximum limit.

Money lent by a lender is eligible to earn a reasonable amount of interest as a measure of compensation for the loss of income the lender might have earned otherwise. However, amount of interest chargeable has been codified by experts of economics. The term Vasistha  invoked by Maharsi Manu  denotes such a skilled economist and not a sage by that name. Amount of interest levied must not exceed 1.25% per month. That is the maximum limit of interest leviable on an amount by a lender.

Na Bhoktavyo Baladadhirbhumjano Vrddhimutsrajet  I

Mulyena Tosayeccainamadhistenoanyatha Bhavet 

II VIII / 85 II

Lender must not use the wealth pledged by borrower as assurance otherwise interest is forfeited and compensates by paying full price.

Wealth pledged by a borrower to lender as a measure of assurance, cannot be claimed to be owned by the lender. He remains a trustee of the pledged wealth so long as the amount borrowed remains with the borrower. Under no circumstance lender is allowed to appropriate the wealth pledged or use that for personal gains. In a situation wherein a lender has violated the norm, not only interest is lost completely, he is mandated to compensate the borrower by paying full price of the wealth pledged.

Yo Yasya Pratibhustisthedadarsanayeha Manavaha  I

Adarsayansa Tama Tasya Prayacchetsvadhanaddranama  II VIII / 94 II

One who guarantees presence of borrower before lender or royal court, is liable to refund the amount borrowed in case of failure.

A guarantor has to assure for the security of an amount borrowed on behalf of the borrower. Guarantor is also mandated to ensure, borrower presents himself before the lender or court whenever required and summoned by them. In case borrower fails to appear or defaults on refund of amount borrowed, guarantor is mandated to refund the amount borrowed with interest to the lender.

Grhita Yadi Nastaha Syatkutumbarthama Krto Vyayaha  I

Datavyama Bandhavaistatsyatpravibhaktairapi Svataha  II VIII / 102 II

If wealth is borrowed for family and borrower expires eventually, all kin are mandated to collectively refund the amount borrowed even if separated.

Wealth borrowed for the benefit of a family is liable to be refunded by all kin collectively in case borrower expires eventually. Responsibility of repatriating an amount borrowed rests upon shoulders of all kin who have been benefited by the borrowing. If all those kin have separated themselves, responsibility does not mitigate itself. They all must come together to refund the amount forthwith collectively.

Sambhogo Drasyate Yatra Na Drsyetagamaha Kvacit  I

Agamaha Karanama Tatra Na Sambhoga Iti Sthitih 

II VIII / 124 II

Rightful ownership of an object is established by it’s being acquired righteously, not by accessibility as ordained in scriptures.

If an object is available to someone for personal application, it does not amount to its rightful ownership as it may well have been acquired dubiously. Rightful ownership of an object is established only if it has been acquired through fair means and established likewise. That is how ownership of an asset has been defined in scriptures too.

Sarvesamardhino Mukhyastadardhenardhinoapare  I

Trtiyinastrtiyansascaturthamasasca Padinaha 

II VIII / 128 II

Out of all, main partners may share half of gains, next rung of investors half of that, third rung one-third and the fourth rung of investors, one-fourth of that to conduct partnership business.

Through this Sloka, Maharsi Manu  has formulated norms for sharing gains from business conducted collectively by partners with varying amount of investments. According to this scheme, main investors are entitled to half of profits, second rung of partners half of that half, third rung of partners one-third of that half and finally, fourth rung of investors / partners, one-fourth of that. With this being the guiding principle, business may be carried out by them.

Dharmarthama Yena Dattama Syatkasmaiciddyacate Dhanama  I

Pascacca Na Tatha Tasyanna Deyama Tasya Tadbhavet  II VIII / 130 II

If wealth accepted as donation or subscription for a certain philanthropic errand is diverted, it must be returned.

Sanctity of an errand or objective ought not be violated. If money has been accepted as subscription for a certain purpose, that must be honoured. If the subscription is diverted for some other purpose, it must be returned to the donor lest in amounts to the offence of misappropriation. Assurance tendered to the donor while accepting donation is sacrosanct and ought not be violated.

Bhrto Narto Na Kuryaddyo Darpatkarma Yathoditama  I

Sa Dandyaha Krsnalanyastau Na Deyama Casya Vetanam  II VIII / 133 II

If an orderly fails to deliver in spite of being healthy owing to egoism, King may impose penalty of eight Krisnala, decline to compensate.

There is punishment prescribed for those attendants too, who are not diligent in honouring their responsibilities out of sheer egoism in spite of not being debilitated, incapacitated by some disease or accident. Such irresponsible orderlies must be penalised by the King to deliver eight Krisanala-s, special type of plant found in jungles and denied compensation for the period of refusal to work.

Yo Gramadesasanghanama Krtva Satyena Samvidam  I

Visamvadennaro Lobhattama Rastradvipravasayet 

II VIII / 136 II

One who reneges on a verified pledge whatsoever, tendered to a person, village, region or community out of sheer avarice, should be banished from country by the King.

Any commitment in the form of vow, contract or agreement submitted to a person, village or community with respect to some errand is entirely sacrosanct and must be honoured diligently. If he fails to honour the commitment, responsibility to act falls upon the state in this regard. Anyone renouncing any such pledge which has been verified indisputably, must be brought to justice and punished by banishing him from state by the King.

Kritva Vikriya Va Kimciddyasyehanusayo Bhavet  I

Soantardasahattad Dravyama Daddyaccaivadadita Va 

II VIII / 139 II

If one is penitent after selling or buying an object, it may be reversed within ten days after that.

Any transaction of buying and selling an object or commodity must be mutually acceptable and palatable. If one develops regret after any such transaction owing to any reason whatsoever, transaction may be reversed forthwith within a reasonable period of time. Such a reversal may preclude any possible controversy at a later stage.

Gopaha Ksirabhrto Yastu Sa Duhyaddasato Varam  I

Gosvamyanumate Bhrtyaha Sa Syatpaleabhrte Bhrtih 

II VIII / 144 II

Shepherd, who accepts milk instead of money as compensation, is entitled to milk one of the best ten cows with prior consent of the owner, as means of his livelihood.

A shepherd working for his cow-owner master may collect compensation in two ways, either money or milk. If he eventually decides to accept milk as compensation instead of money, he is entitled to milk one of the best cows owned by his master as the milk alone happens to be the means of livelihood for him. Indeed, he is expected to milk the cow with prior permission only.

Ajavike Tu Samruddhe Vrkaiha Pale Tvanayati  I

Yama Prasahya Vrko Hantyatpale tatkilvisama Bhavet  II VIII / 148 II

If a goat or sheep is killed after being encircled and shepherd fails to actively protect, shepherd alone is accountable for that.

While these herbivores are out on grazing, they may be pounced upon and killed slyly by a carnivore viz. wolf etc. after being encircled by their herd. Shepherd is expected to protect them while on grazing from being attacked in addition to his usual responsibility of shepherding. If he ignores his responsibility of protecting them, he alone has to compensate his master for the loss of animal.

Simama Prati Samutpanne Vivade Gramayordvayoha  I

Jyesthe Masi Nayetsimama Suprakasesu Setesu 

II VIII / 156 II

Boundary disputes among villages may be resolved during Jyestha  when all signs are accessible.

Jyestha  is the month when monsoon recedes and all landmarks, signs are conspicuously visible and accessible. With the support of these landmarks, any boundary dispute between villages or communities may be easily resolved without much of controversies.

Tadaganyudapanani Vapyaha Prasravanani Ca  I

Simasandhisu Karyani Devatayatanani Ca  II VIII / 159 II

Water bodies viz. ponds, wells, canals, Yajnasala-s may be constructed on borders of villages.

Yajnasala  is the sacred place wherein Yajna  is conducted in a solemn ambiance. On boundaries between villages, it is advised to construct waterbodies and Yajnasala  for the benefit and comfort of all.

Emphasis on construction of Yajnasala  reveals contemporary society had been deeply religious as they used to conduct Yajna  even during journeys. Also, joint Yajna-s  were conducted alongwith celebrations and festivities.

Yadi Samsaya Eva Syallinganamapi Darsane  I

Saksipratyaya Eva Syatsimavadavinirnayaha 

II VIII / 164 II

If confusion regarding boundaries persist in spite of distinctly identifiable landmarks, assistance of witnesses may be resorted to.

If boundary disputes refuse to be resolved on the basis of distinctly identifiable landmarks and other tell-tale signs during month of Jyestha, King may invite Saksi-s i.e. witnesses of past boundaries and others in the know of history of those boundaries to assist in sorting out the dispute. Boundary disputes must not be left unresolved lest it raises attrition, entirely avoidable.

Srutama Desama Ca Jatim Ca Karma Sarirameva Ca  I

Vitathena Bruvandarpaddapyaha Syad Dvisatama Damam  II VIII / 173 II

If someone derogates other owing to arrogance caused by superiority of Vidya, Desa, Varna  and Sarira, he may be penalised with two-hundred Pana-s.

Anyone who has succeeded in attaining superiority with respect to Vidya  i.e. education and knowledge that he has been able to attain; Desa  i.e. region which may be more developed and he belongs to; Varna  i.e. social order he belongs to or Sarira  i.e. gross body that he possesses, King may penalise him with two-hundred Pana-s i.e. a unit of transaction as a measure of retribution.

Superiority, excellence in any discipline or strive is expected to bring about humility and modesty. It is no way expected to egoism and impulse to derogate, humiliate others.

Manusyanama Pasunama Ca Duhkhaya Prahrate Sati  I

Yatha Yatha Mahad Duhkhama Kuryattatha Tatha 

II VIII / 177 II

Striking someone or animal with cane to hurt must be punished appropriately and equitably.

No one is authorised to hurt anyone. Man is not permitted to hurt even animals. Indeed, scriptures have ordained man as a saviour and protector of animals. If anyone violates the scriptural mandate, he should be punished appropriately commensurate with gravity of the injury inflicted upon the victim.

 Abhayasya Hi Yo Data sa Pujyaha Satatama Nrpaha  I

Satrama Hi Vardhate Tasya Sadaivabhayadaksinama 

II VIII / 182 II

King whose subjects are fearless, is always adored and his rein continues expanding.

Head of a state who respects his subjects, allows them unmitigated fearlessness, is the adored one among his subjects. Vedic  wisdom too ordains, King must respect his subjects, love them as his own progeny and ensure their well-being in all respects as well as all avenues to progress are always open before them. Such a King enjoys entire confidence and commitment of his subject uninterruptedly and they exert all possible efforts for continuous growth of the state.

Yoaraksanbalimadatte Karama Sulkama Ca Parthivaha  I

Pratibhagama Ca Dandama Ca Saha Sadyo Narakama Vrajet  II VIII / 184 II

King who collects taxes, octroi, penalties from his subjects without defending them, is soon mortified.

When a King collects taxes and other forms of revenues from his subjects, he is bound by his Dharma  to look after them well as well as defend them from oppressive forces. These are his cardinal responsibilities to justify his ascension to the throne. If a King fails to honour his basic responsibilities or rejects his Dharma  consciously owing to any causative factor whatsoever, he is not entitled to and authorised to collect revenues from his subjects at all. If he does that compulsively, he is soon attained to grief raised by the subjects.

Annade Bhrunaha Marsti Patyau Bharyapacarini  I

Gurau Sisyasca Yajyasca Steno Rajani Kilvisama 

II VIII / 192 II

Those who accept meals with perpetrators of foeticide, husband of an immoral wife, Guru  of a deviant disciple, Ritvik  of a Yajnamana  are complicit in their respective felonies just as King for declining to punish a thief.

If a King fails to punish an offender owing to any reason whatsoever, he has to partly accept the felony committed for having failed to discharge his Dharma. Similarly, a person having friendly relations with the one indulging in the felony of foeticide, is partly guilty for having failed to exert influence to prevent the evil act. Similar is the scenario for the husband of an immoral wife, Guru  of a wayward disciple and Ritvik  i.e. who conducts religious rituals of a Yajnamana  i.e. client of Ritvik. They all must strive for prevention of the felony lest they too, stand guilty for the offence.

Institution of Danda  is divine. This is one institution which exists in all in varying proportions and bound to enforce to the best possible extent. 

Pitaacaryaha Suhranmata Bharya Putraha Purohitaha  I

Nadandyo Nama Rajnyoasti Yaha Svadharme Na Tisthati  II VIII / 202 II

One violating Svadharma  is never exempt from Danda  irrespective of being Pita, Acarya, Suhrt, Mata, Bharya, Putra  or Purohita.

Svadharma  is one’s own Dharma  that is mandatory and impossible to be declined by anyone. Even Sri Rama  and Sri Krsna  as Avatara-s could not reject their respective Svadharma-s which happened to be their sole objectives of incarnation. If Svadharma  is dishonoured or declined, it amounts to a punishable felony. Since the sacrosanct institution of Danda  is to be exercised by King, he ought to be entirely objective and impartial be the accused standing before him his Pita  i.e. father, Acarya  i.e. teacher, Suhrt  i.e. friend, Mata  i.e. mother, Bharya  i.e. wife, Putra  i.e. son or Purohita  i.e. holy man who conducts religious rituals.

Institution of Danda  brooks no partiality and lack of integrity.

Karsapanama Bhavedyandaha Yatranyaha Prakrto Janaha  I

Tatra Raja Bhaveddandyaha Saharamiti Dharana 

II VIII / 203 II

For an offence committed by an ordinary one and eligible for one unit of penalty, King must be punished by thousand times of the amount for the same offence committed by him.

King of a state is regarded as custodian of the state governed by him, his subjects and the institution of Danda. He is expected to be above controversy of every sort whatsoever and absolutely untainted by an offence. If a King happens to commit an offence, Maharsi Manu  has mandated punishment of the order of thousand times of the quantum which would have been awarded to an ordinary subject for the same offence. Thus, a King is called upon to maintain highest standards of probity in governance in his reign.

Astapadyama Tu Sudrasya Steye Bhavati Kilvisama  I

Sodasaiva Tu Vaisyasya Dvatrinsatksatriyasya Ca 

II VIII / 204 II

Brahamanasya Catuhasastiha Purnama Vaapi Satama Bhavet  I

Dviguna Va Catuhasastistaddosagunaviddhi Saha 

II VIII / 205 II

Even as a lesser accomplished Sudra  be awarded eight times, Vaisya  sixteen times, Ksatriya  thirty-two times and a Brahmana  sixty-four or hundred or one hundred twenty-eight times of the amount of wealth purloined.

Higher the status on social ladder of advancement, greater is the retribution for an offence of say, theft or corruption as mandated by Maharsi Manu. As socially advanced ones are regarded and emulated as font of inspiration, it is all the more imperative that their personal conduct is beyond reproach. In a bid to assure that, while a Sudra  is ordained to be penalised by eight times, Vaisya  sixteen times, Ksatriya  thirty-two times and a Brahmana  sixty-four or more in consonance with the circumstances, of the amount of wealth purloined. Pillars of society must deport themselves beyond controversy.

Paradarabhimarsesu Pravrttannranmahipatiha  I

Udvejanakarairdandaisccinnayitva Pravasayet 

II VIII / 213 II

Those indulging in promiscuity may be crippled to cause agony, then expelled from the state.

Immoral conduct including promiscuity is entirely unacceptable to Maharsi Manu  and he has prescribed stringent punishment for the same. Those indulging in immoral conduct with other’s women may be crippled permanently by mutilating some sense organ, hand or feet then, banished from the state forever. People with immoral proclivities do not enjoy liberty of dwelling in the state a normal life.

Bhartaram Langhyedya Tu Stri Jnatigunadarpita  I

Tam Svabhih Khadayedraja Samsthane Bahusamsthite  II VIII / 217 II

Woman deserting her spouse to indulge in immoral acts out of arrogance caused by her superior social order and other attributes, may be condemned to being bitten to death by canines in presence of large number of men and women.

Licentious women who reject their duly wedded spouses impelled by arrogance caused by their being superior on any count of physical possessions, may be condemned to an agonising death publicly. Severity of the punishment is expected to act as a dreaded deterrent for others who may be on verge of similar indulgence.

Pumansama Dahayetpapama Sayane Tapta Ayase  I

Abhyadadhyusca Kasthani Tatra Dahyot Papakrt 

II VIII / 218 II

Sinner indulging in promiscuity after rejecting his duly wedded spouse, may be incinerated on a red-hot iron cot in presence of several others.

Promiscuous indulgences by men who happen to be already married, invite stringent retribution as prescribed by Maharsi Manu. It is exceedingly harsh as evident from the Sloka. As a matter of fact, retribution on subtle planes of existence after dis-embodiment is too, very harsh as mentioned in Sruti  and Smriti. One’s moral conduct must be invariably impeccable.

Na Mata Na Pita Na Stri Na Putrastyagamarhati  I

Tyajannapapitanetrajna Dandyaha Satani Sat 

II VIII / 222 II

Neither mother, nor father, wife and son are to be disowned. If so in spite of their being innocent, King may punish with six-hundred Pana.

Owing to any reason whatsoever, no one enjoys the liberty to disown kin viz. mother, father, wife or son. King is called upon to punish such offenders with a penalty of at least six-hundred Pana-s, a monetary unit of transactions. Such violations of social and family norms of conduct are grave in nature with long-term implications. They have the potential to disintegrate a well-ordered society and ruin entire state ultimately. Maharsi Manu  has not only cautioned state and King in this regard but also suggested through the Sloka, how to nip the potential crisis in bud.

Rajnyaha PrakhyataBhandani Yani ca  I

Tani Niraharato Lobhatsarvaharama Harennrapaha 

II VIII / 224 II

Well recognised royal utensils and other prohibited objects may be entirely confiscated by King on being smuggled out of state by an avaricious one.

Royal utensils are generally regarded as antiques which transcend several generations of royalty and are widely recognised among state subjects. In addition to these, all other objects of antique value must be listed and declared as prohibited items, dis-allowed to be traded, exported or bartered away for pecuniary gains by those covetous of large amount of quick wealth. If any such act is exposed to royal authorities, all such items may be confiscated irrevocably by the King. State’s antique treasures ought to be guarded for the posterity and retribution for failure must be an expensive gaffe.

Pancaratre Pancaratre Pakse Pakseathava Gate  I

Kurvita Caisama Pratyaksamarghasamsthapanama Nrpaha  II VIII / 227  II      

After every five days or fortnight, King may decide values in presence of traders.

As economy of every state is dynamic in nature with all variable factors constantly under revision and modifications, King must evaluate periodically so as to ensure, all variables remain in sync with other factors of development. Prices of all commodities being traded must be revised by King periodically at an optimum period of five to 15 days in their presence with their participation. Economy under uninterrupted upgradation is always progressive.

 

All these injunctions and mandates are entirely Varna-neutral.

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