Prarabdha  is the basket of Karma-s enacted earlier and now matured to bear proceeds in immediate future. Such Karma-s may belong to any life / embodiment, contemporary or hundreds and thousands before in past. Prarabdha Karma-s may be dissolved only through redemption by eliciting proceeds. It is impossible to dissolve such Karma-s before they manifest into proceeds as they are already poised to redeem themselves.

Samkalpa  is the resolve or determination that one aspires to realise in life irrespective of Prarabdha. Indeed, Samkalpa  may be entirely independent of Prarabdha, not even remotely interconnected. Prarabdha  refers to past actions while Samkalpa, current and future. However, both are essentially Karma-s of yesterday and today / tomorrow respectively. Prarabdha  is unseen, unknown while Samkalpa  is seen and known. It is not that Prarabdha  cannot be confronted at all. Effects of Prarabdha  can be minimized or augmented through appropriate actions by exercising faculty of free will available at our discretion.

Now the nagging question that raises it’s head is whether Samkalpa  can supercede Prarabdha. Is it that our lives are encapsulated by Prarabdha  with no Samkalpa howsoever robust, capable of overturning that to achieve the apparently impossible albeit targeted ? If that be so, then what is the relevance and rationality behind Samkalpa  when Prarabdha  is impossible to be ignored ? Is man a slave of Prarabdha  or master of destiny by virtue of strength of his Samkalpa ?

Every act of every moment impacts upon subsequent moments of our being, consciousness. Causes and conditions of our emotions, perceptions, volition and grades of consciousness are proceeds of our Karmic  activities. All phenomena are in an intransigent state of dynamic flux, changing from moment to moment. Nothing is permanent or forever, including miseries and sufferings. By retaining deserts of vanities, we cannot harvest savannas of virtues. Every sentient is a potential giant. Only our negative Karma-s obfuscate us from beholding this profound reality.

Length of nail inserted inside a piece of wood long ago by someone is now unknown to us. However, to pull the nail out from wood, far greater efforts are required. Since length of nail inserted inside is unknown, one may be unable to conclude how much efforts are required to pull it out now. If length of nail inserted inside is Prarabdha, efforts to pull it out constitute Samkalpa. In such a situation wherein intensity of Prarabdha  is unknown, one must assiduously strive in best of efforts towards realisation of Samkalpa  without worrying about proceeds. Samkalpa  imparts strength of adaptation that delves into innermost recesses of creativity. Overcoming adversity through Samkalpa  stimulates and nourishes advancement. Indomitability of human endeavour is supreme which must be allowed unmitigated freedom to cause evolution and transcend Prarabdha.

Prarabdha  also imparts Vasana-s i.e. tendencies / inclinations in a particular direction of action. Through consciousness of Samkalpa, one may overcome or intensify those inclinations by the dint of Samkalpa. If one allows oneself to be carried away by those legacies of inclinations and propensities, holding destiny responsible for the proceeds thereof is entirely irrational. It is comfortable to have uninterrupted faith in Prarabdha  and absolve oneself of one’s contribution to failures and setbacks. However, that merely discounts phenomenal human endeavour capable of shining like a bright star through the scowling clouds of despondence.

Retribution of Prarabdha  is certainly inescapable albeit Vasana-s are programmable through Samkalpa. Desirable and undesirable Vasana-s have been elaborated in scriptures and means explained how to harness them.

Once Prarabdha  is redeemed, Vasana-s and Samskara-s rendered ineffective, stage is set to attain ultimate emancipation from shackles of Maya  of Prakrti

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Surrogacy is a practice whereby a woman bears and delivers a baby meant to be delivered to another couple, issueless or otherwise. That immediately allows rise of two forms of surrogacies, Altruistic and Commercial. Altruistic surrogacy is based on pure altruistic considerations wherein no money transaction viz. expenses, fees, monetary incentive etc. is allowed except medical expenses and insurance coverage for the surrogate mother. Commercial surrogacy involves not only sale of human embryo but also all conceivable monetary incentives change hands.

Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill 2016 cleared by the Union Government and expected to be tabled in Lok Sabha during forthcoming winter session of Parliament, stipulates compulsory registration of clinics engaged for the purpose, unexceptional ban on commercial surrogacy and records thereof to be maintained for at least 25 years. The Bill also explicitly defines eligibility conditions for couples intending to avail of surrogacy service viz. restricted to Bharatiya  citizens only, must be married at least for 5 years, either or both clinically certified to be infertile, 23 to 50 years of age-group for women and 26 to 55 years of age-group for men, only close relative allowed to be surrogate mother, incidence of surrogacy restricted to one opportunity only, couple with no surviving child or having disabled child including fatal illness being eligible, also children born out of surrogacy not to be allowed to be abandoned under any condition or subjected to any form of exploitation whatsoever and doctors prohibited to carry out any procedure that may possibly hurt surrogate mother of the baby. Proposed legal framework mandates equal rights in all respects for the surrogate child as with the biological one and rights of surrogate mother over her infant simplifying issues of parentage. Violation of provisions shall attract imprisonment and penalty upto 10 years and 10 lakhs respectively. The Bill mandates constitution of surrogacy boards at national and state levels and district authorities participating in administration of the law, whenever enacted and notified. Time space of 10 months shall be allowed between Presidential assent of the Bill and notification thereof so as to allow surrogate mothers already pregnant to complete their related engagements with the matter.

Group of Ministers that scrutinized the draft bill prepared by the Law Commission was headed by Sushma Swaraj with JP Nadda, Nirmala Sitharaman and Harsimrat Kaur Badal as members. Bill is drafted in harmony with country’s cultural ethos purely on ethical considerations. Extent of malaise may be gauged from the fact that surrogacy has now turned a US$ 400 million a year industry with over 3000 Surrogacy Clinics all over the country. It is realistic to call them ‘Surrogacy Clinics’ instead of Infertility Clinics with the kind of blatant commercialization of female body that they have nurtured for the lucre. Childless couples from all over the world are attracted to India for surrogacy because price of Indian woman’s body is dirt cheap given the poverty figures and lure of the lucre even among the well to do. Even celebrities flush with wealth and already blessed with one or two children, went ahead for surrogate child only because wife had declined to endure with third child-birth. Under the new law, such couples as well as widows or divorcees would be allowed to go for adoption instead of surrogacy. It has also been decided that no more new Surrogacy Clinics in the name of Infertility Clinics would be allowed in the country. There is every likelihood that surrogacy business shall encounter slump in ‘sale of services’ once the law is passed and notified. 

Necessity of the law was realized as exploitation of surrogate mothers has been on the rise, escalation of abandonment of surrogate children and well-heeled intermediaries laughing way to their bank accounts with import of human embryos and gametes. Womb trade for poor / innocent women has been a bane on rise and the psychological trauma they are left to contend with had to be curbed. According to World Bank report of 2013, drop in fertility had been steep and today, country has some 10% population suffering from infertility. With the rise in infertility, population of ‘Surrogacy-Infertility Sharks’ shall also rise exponentially and the urgency to regulate the entire scenario is real lest it turns dreadful.  

Opposition to the bill has largely been subdued so far with stray voices emerging from lobbies of vested interests and secular pioneers with dubious intentions. There are lobbies demanding only regulation of the so-called industry instead of banning it altogether. They blame Government of adopting a patronizing attitude towards women instead of allowing them unmitigated freedom to chose when, how, to whom and how many times they rent out their wombs !! They fail to realise intentionally or otherwise, the same weird consideration may easily be stretched to justify rather accommodate full-body trade for satisfying carnal passions too, anywhere in an open market. Allowing unrestricted access to foreigners as demanded by some lobbies to attract ‘Surrogacy-Infertility FDI’ in this sector would soon earn a dubious distinction of Bharata  being a ‘Surrogate country’ in the world. If slapped with the dubious honour, it may take centuries for the dishonor to be obliterated from history books and public consciousness. Proposed law perceives infertility as a human agony and provides for an amelioration in a humane manner within precincts of a normal and natural family ambience. The law ensures a surrogate child leads as much a normal life as possible that is available to a natural born biological child.

If some lobbies have decided to call it illegitimate interference with woman’s complete personal liberty over her body and soul, it may be argued that no fundamental right is absolute in nature and no fundamental right may be allowed to override overall interests and well-being of family, society and nation as unrestricted / unmitigated invocation of any fundamental right is bound to adversely affect all. There are some who argue, complete ban on commercial surrogacy is as preposterous in concept as prohibition and as absurd in practice as banning prostitution. Well, naysayers and prophets of doom have always been in the forefront to extend ‘red-carpet welcome’ to every nascent move before the move is transformed into a legendary success for the posterity to reckon with. A well-intentioned law or decision cannot be stalled from enactment for the fear of some adverse consequences at the expense of good that it is bound to do to the majority in due course.

Medical fraternity has not been very enthused about the proposed law. Their main grouse appears to be based on exclusion of ‘same-sex couples’ and ‘single parent families’. They have not yet condescended to explain as to how ‘same-sex couples’ can be called ‘couples’ instead of house-partners / co-tenants or ‘single parent families’ as ‘families’ instead of individuals. They are yet to explain as to how such ‘couples’ and ‘families’ can ensure normal mental / psychological development of surrogate children. To some extent, it applies to adopted children too. Dr. Anant Bhan, known as a ‘medical ethicist’, charged Government of “making unacceptable value judgement in today’s age” as well as people with special needs “have some lower value of living”. Infertility specialist Dr. Nayna Patel declared bill “virtually spelt death to surrogacy because it takes away…and nation will miss out medical tourism”. If womb-trade is ethical to promote ‘medical tourism’, then offering children to western pedophiles to promote tourism in Goa should also be ethical thus, acceptable and welcomed !! What sort of wisdom is this, afflicting the nation while pushing entire society towards decline and destruction for the sake of earning US $ ?? However, another infertility specialist Dr. Aniruddha Malpani candidly admits, surrogacy has been overused and misused far too often and regulation is overdue. They overlook the fact that principle of surrogacy stipulates, it is meant for those who really need that and not for promoting medical tourism or ‘transfer of labour pain’ to poor women with a certain price attached to that.    

Constitutional historian Ivor Jennings once commented, “…rule of law is apt to be rather an unruly horse…”. Well, if rule of law is deftly blended with the prevailing pristine ethos of nation, there is a pragmatism of ‘unruly horse’ turning into a majestic elephant of an enlightened order !! While Abhishek Manu Singhvi and Anish Dayal believe, the bill “shall harken back to stone ages”, they are unaware of facts by design and intent that country belonged to a golden era of ‘Sone ki Chiria’ till 1750 followed by every order of decline, degradation all over and the Bill proposes to be one of the powerful instruments to exercise restraint over that. Bharatiya  womb is not for sale, Bharatiya  society can no more afford or sustain any kind of moral degradation. Agony of a childless couple or childless individual (which they call single parent family !!) is a human issue and must be sorted out as humanely as possible instead of tagging it to a commercial venture. Their argument of the Bill being at a cross with dwindling Parsee community too, is fraught with frivolity. If commercial surrogacy is allowed for Parsee community, it is likely to witness augmentation of in-breeding, further deterioration and may be, eventual extinction. Is it not prudent and pragmatic for them to diversify their genetic stock by adding more gene-pool from other communities ? They declare, by what method one chooses to be a parent, naturally or through surrogacy, is none of the State’s prerogatives. It is certainly State’s prerogative as it deeply affects so many aspects of the State, society, community and family, all intertwined. State has been paying a heavy price for the unmitigated, unregulated freedom which is aptly described by the term “Free for all” during seven decades after independence and now it is the historic moment to call enough is enough. 

US comedian Elayne Boosler says, “The Vatican is against surrogate mothers. Good thing they didn’t have that rule when Jesus was born.” We do not know how serious the comedian was or whether Jesus would have wholeheartedly supported the move concerning human amelioration given his Biblical track-record of pardoning every ‘sinner’ without going into past, present and future of the sinner-seeker. In absence of these vital details, we are lulled to assume, even Jesus would have agreed to the cause of altruistic surrogacy as those who propound philosophical faiths, have been having a heart much bigger than their so-called trustees and followers .    


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Grand narrative that modern Israel has is the sacrifice of 900 brave Bharatiya soldiers in their foundation who graciously martyred themselves to liberate strategic port of Haifa from 402 years old occupation of Islamic Ottoman Empire of Turkey in 1918, during concluding years of World War I, little known worldwide. Approximately 1,50,000 Bharatiya soldiers including those specially despatched by Maharaja-s of Jodhpur, Mysore and Hyderabad participated in the operation on Sept. 22, 23 of 1918 and concluded at sharp 3 PM on the second day !! Famous Belfour Declaration-1917 between British Foreign Secretary Arthur Belfour and Israeli leader Chaim Weizmann committed to Jews their homeland through military action. Australia New Zealand Armed Corps (ANZAC) too arrived while British Army had all Bharatiya soldiers sent by Maharaja-s of Jodhpur, Mysore and Nizam of Hyderabad. Nizam’s soldiers were deployed by the British only to guard Prisoners Of War, not for direct participation in battle. They first planned to capture the seaport of Haifa to disrupt supply line of Ottomans and establish supply line for liberating forces. As Turks were heavily fortified on Mount Carmel supported by German and Austrian armies, British Army decided to withdraw to avoid huge casualties and pressed Bharatiya soldiers too to withdraw. However, Indian soldiers mounted on horses and armed merely with swords and spears, rejected withdrawal, categorically declared themselves Ksatriya-s who would opt for death instead of retreating and decided to attack Ottoman Muslims. In spite of Muslims being armed with machine guns and cannons, Jodhpur and Mysore Lancers fought fiercely and their cavalry bravery witnessed capture of Haifa on Sept. 23, 1918. This was the only victory in world military history led by Major Dalpat Singh Shekhawat MC wherein a fortified town was liberated after 402 years of Islamic slavery by a Cavalry on gallop armed with only swords and spears against foes armed with machine guns and cannons ! They had not been trained to fight with guns by the British for the apprehension of those guns being used against them later. In this battle that lasted only one and half hour, Lancers captured 1532 Turkish soldiers, 11 machine guns, 17 guns and two naval guns. Capt. Bahadur Amar Singh Jodha and Jamadar Jor Singh were awarded Indian Order of Merit for their unique bravery, devotion and martyrdom. The brave Major Dalpat Singh who sacrificed himself, was anointed as ‘Hero of Haifa’, conferred upon Military Cross and the entire saga of bravery is described in history textbooks of Israel. After this crucial victory to the extent of 90% of the entire battle, British Army then carried on with capturing other territories of Palestine and soon a nation, Israel was born. More than 900 Bharatiya soldiers sacrificed themselves in Haifa battle, were cremated with military honours by Israelis in various cemeteries across Israel. Their graves and memorials are very well looked after by the Government of Israel even today. British later raised a memorial in front of Teen Murti Bhavan, then official residence of the Commander of British Army.  

On Sept. 23 of 2016, a memorial function was organized at Teen Murti Crossing in New Delhi, tributes were paid to martyrs by HE Ambassador of Israel Daniel Carmon, Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar and Lt. Governor of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Prof. Jagdish Mukhi. A seminar too, was organized in Teen Murti Bhavan auditorium with Shri Indresh Kumar of Muslim Rashtriya Manch delivering the keynote address. 

Indo-Israel Friendship Forum celebrates HAIFA DAY every year at ten locations i.e. Ramla in Israel, New York in USA, Durban in South Africa, Hongkong in China and at five locations in Mumbai, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Hyderabad and Delhi in Bharata. Memorial at Teen Murti Chowk has three life-sized statues sculpted in 1922 representing three States of Jodhpur, Mysore and Hyderabad who had participated in the battle to liberate Israel from Turkish occupation. Bharatiya Army raised 61st Cavalry by merging Jodhpur and Mysore regiments in memory of Haifa martyrs. In 2009, President of Bharata and Chief of Naval Staff paid tributes at the memorial followed by goodwill visit to Haifa port by four Naval warships to pay tributes to martyrs. Now it has been decided to jointly celebrate Sept. 23 as Haifa Day in the country every year by Indo-Israel Friendship Forum and Forum for Awareness of National Security (FANS) under leadership of Shri Indresh Kumar. He heralded the call to strengthen commercial, cultural and defence cooperation between Bharata and Israel, Teen Murti Chowk be renamed as ‘Teen Murti Haifa Mukti Chowk’, undertake ‘Patriotic Tourism’ to border areas, mingle with security forces to boost their morale and celebration of centenary year of Haifa liberation in 2018 in a big way in both countries.    

Jews first came to Cochin in Bharata some 2500 years ago when Israel was invaded by Assyrians, again after some 500 years to Alibaug when invaded by Babylonians. It was only in Bharata that they were treated with honour and dignity while in every other country, they were persecuted and brutalised. Jews all declare Israel as their fatherland while Bharata, their motherland !! Israel is in their blood while Bharata in their hearts !! Israel have thanked Bharata for looking after Jews for 2000 years and liberating Israel through Haifa victory. Israel maintain our war memorials in their country with utmost care and attention. 


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Ganesa  is not only mysterious but also evocative. Every year during 10 day long Ganesa Parva, questions are flung far and wide as to why Hindu-s worship “the elephant headed” deity so adoringly. Elephant is a symbol of authority, dignity, strength and endurance. Explanations and Puranic  texts are repeated with regularity just as the question is. It was Maharsi Bhrgu  who conceptualised the worship and mentioned it in one of the most ancient Upanisad-s Taittiriya  some 10,000 years ago in Vedic  state of Brahmavarta. The legendary Maharsi  had contributed to other Samhita-s and Rg Veda  too. The concept consecrated by him is very much alive, rather expanding beyond boundaries of Bharata. Ganesa  emerged as a deity during 4th / 5th centuries CE of Gupta Period encumbered with traits from pre-Vedic  precursors. A sect of devotees known as Ganapatya  came into being who identified Ganesa  as their supreme deity. Principal scriptures dedicated to Ganesa  are Ganesa Purana, Mudgala Purana  and Ganapati Atharvasirsa. Brahma Purana  and Brahmanda Purana  are other two Puranic  texts dealing with Ganesa.

At the core of Vedic  wisdom is convergence of all cosmic forces and human intellect as a means of their manifestation. Veda-s incessantly emphasise association of two in the name of Yoga. Activities of Brahma  are held in highest esteem and such persons are known as Brahmana-s. Elephant contoured part of human brain lies at the base of skull that does ‘intelligent’ activities with two ear shaped Corpus Callosum on both sides inter-linking two hemisperes of brain, Medulla in the centre resembling trunk, Pineal and Pituitary glands represented by two tusks. Purana-s beautifully narrate a tale on how Ganesa  was created at the instance of Parwati  by Siva  at the entrance of Her dwelling. Herein, Base of Skull is the entrance into human brain and the realised ones are endowed with divine faculties to sift and regulate every external stimulus received by five organs of cognition i.e. Indriya-s. Thus, function of organs collectively known as Ganesa  at the Base of Skull is critical in nature. Functions related to intelligence and consciousness too, are examined by Ganesa, also known as Karta  as He is responsible for all actions enacted through human body.

After previous universe was destroyed during Pralaya, long spell of pitch dark Brahma-night of cosmic serenity and tranquillity followed. Through this cosmic night, suddenly emerged mind blowing sound of Pranava  i.e. Ohm. It was the Supreme Absolute who appeared in the manifest of trinity of Brahma, Visnu  and Mahesa. Gana  refers to a group and Isa  or Pati  refers to Isvara. Gana-s are all creatures and Ganesa, their Master Deity. If Gana-s refer to entire spectacle of Mantra-s, Ganesa  as Omkara  is pre-eminent at the core of all of them. If Gana-s are various orders of Prana, Ganesa  is the inner Self and foremost. If Gana-s are fundamental Tattva-s, Ganesa  is again the pivotal inner Self. If Gana-s are stream of Karma-s, Ganesa  is the Prajna  that dispenses proceeds of Karma-s enacted. Ganesa  dwells in Muladhara Cakra, ruling over Prthvi  and holding Kundalini, supreme strength of transcendence. Thus, Ganesa  is the confluence of Siva  and Sakti  having a couple of consorts, Siddhi  i.e. supreme accomplishments and Buddhi, faculty of discriminative wisdom.

Ganesa Caturthi  is a ten day festival in the month of Bhadrapada  from Sukla Caturthi  to Ananta Caturthi, to celebrate advent of Ganesa  into our consciousness. Celebrations trace back to dynasties of Satavahana, Rastrakuta  and Calukya,  used to be held in Maharashtra and Goa to begin with, then it expanded all over Bharata. Now Ganesa Parva  is celebrated all over the world by Hindu-s. Individual celebrations are conducted in homes, communities and public places. He is worshipped every morning, evening elaborately and immersed on the day of Ananta Caturthi. Four main rituals for the entire celebration are Pranapratistha  i.e. infusion of deity into Murty, Sodasopacara  i.e. 16 forms of adoration unto Him, Uttarapuja  i.e. Puja  after which He can be shifted and finally, Ganapati Visarjana  i.e. immersion into river. Modaka  is the main sweet that is offered to Ganesa  and partaken as Prasada. He is known by 108 names with every name pertaining to a unique aspect of His persona. For instance, Ganesa  is Acintya  i.e. beyond contemplation, Avyakta  i.e. beyond manifestation and Ananta  i.e. eternal. He is Master of all disciplines of knowledge and wisdom, adored before commencement of all ceremonies and rituals being Adi Deva  i.e. deity of beginning. Legend  has it that Ganesa  was created by Siva  and Parwati  after entreaties of Deva-s to act as VighnaKarta  i.e. hurdle-maker for devils and demons as well as VignaHarta  for Deva-s themselves. Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak revived the tradition of Ganapati Puja, popularised it at national level to unite all communities and groups. He transformed it into a rallying point for heralding freedom movement against British occupation of the country in 1893. After independence was attained, it was declared a national festival.

Ganesa  appears in Mahayana Buddhism, not only as Vināyaka Buddhist  but also as a demon bearing the same name. His image appears in Buddhist  sculptures of Gupta  period. As Buddhist Vināyaka, He is often inexplicably dancing with abandon, whirling and twirling as Nṛtta Ganapati, popular in Nepal and Tibet too. According to Ganapatya, He appeared as Nrtta Ganapati  with the light of first dawn blowing conch to emit the sound of Pranava, then mandate the Trinity to create, nurture the world and annihilate evils within. In Nepal, Ganesa  is known as Herambha, has five heads and rides a lion. Tibetan representations of Ganesa  reveal renderings of Ganapati  as tshogs bdag. In another Tibetan manifest, He is depicted being trodden by Mahakalesvara, a widely worshipped Tibetan deity. Other depictions present Him as Destroyer of Obstacles. Ganesa  appears in China and Japan manifesting as distinct regional deities. Ganesa  is worshipped by Jains too as Kubera  i.e. deity of wealth though their literature may not describe that. Earliest known Jain Ganesa  statue belongs to 9th century and a Jain  text belonging to 15th century describes procedures for installation of Ganapati  images. Images of Ganesa  appear in the Jain Mandir-s of Rajasthan and Gujarat.

Japan has some 250 Ganesa Mandir-s wherein Ganapati  is known as ‘Kangiten’, first mentioned in 806. Ganesa  was worshipped in Central Asia as His statues have been discovered in Afghanistan, Iran, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Mongolia, Indonesia, Brunei, Bulgaria, Mexico and other Latin American countries. Earliest known statue of Ganesa  in China carries an inscription dated to 531. Romans too, worshipped Ganesa  before commencement of every new venture. Irish Embassy in New Delhi is the first European Embassy to instal a Ganesa  statute at their main entrance to invoke His blessings. Silicon Valley have accepted Ganesa  as their presiding deity of cyberspace technology. Greek coins dating first / third century BC has images of elephant headed Ganesa. So do Indonesian currency notes. 

According to Daivata Sastra, Ganesa  is not only presiding deity of all disciplines of erudition, but also fine as well as performing arts too. His another name ‘Rangaraja’ precisely describes Him performer par excellence being an exquisite dancer, as if dance had been His very existence being progeny of Nataraja Siva, identified with Tandava  dances and Parwati, presiding deity of gracious Lasya. Ganesa  beautifully blended both forms of performing art revered and adored by all dancers who sing an ode unto Him before commencement of their every performance. He exists everywhere, in every testimony of art viz. paintings, sculptures, scriptures etc. Krida Khanda  of Ganesa Purana  describes a dance by Him as a child which memerised Siva  into dancing in abandon. Linga Purana  too, describes Ganesa  as the presiding deity of dances. So do Bharata’s Natya Sastra  and Vedic Samhita-s too. 10th century author Dhananjaya  invoked Ganesa  in the opening prayer of his famous work on dramaturgy, Dasarupaka  as it goes, “I salute Ganesa  whose Mrdanga  like Hunkara  acts as an accompaniment to Siva’s Tandava.” He is often seen in paintings, playing musical instruments to the dancing Gana-s surrounded by Siva. Acarya Nandikesvara  wrote in his 12th century work Abhinaya Darpana, every Nartaka  must pray to Vighnesa, Murajadhipa, Akasa  and Prthvi, must strike Kapittha Mudra  and follow movements detailed in Gajalila Gati. In every opening ceremony of Alaripu Nrtya, Bharatanatyama Nartaka  performs Ganesa Vandana  singing the verse, “Tandava Ganapati, Narayana Ganapati” accompanied by Mrdangam. After Puspanjali  and Bhumi Pranama, Odissi Nartaka  performs Vandana  during Mangalacarana  with profoundly evocative Bhava  and Mudra. 17th century Marathi Santa Ramdasa  beautifully described Nrtya Ganesa  in his work Dasabodha. Nrtya Ganesa  is visualised as dancing under Kalpavriksa  tree holding Hastidanta  i.e. tusk symbolising Param Brahma  being the Absolute One, Ankusa  i.e. goad symbolising self-restraint, Parasu  i.e. axe and Pasa  i.e. noose symbolising discipline, in His four hands. Enormous belly with a serpent around symbolises acceptance with consciousness, Modaka  being attainment of ultimate bliss and Durva  grass dedicated, all our woes and agonies. Most beautifully crafted Nrtya Ganesa Murti  is in Hoyasalesvara Mandir  in Halebidu, Karnataka belonging to 12th century.

Legend has it that Ganesa  shall assume an Avatara  in the manifest of a tree to destroy the demon of pollution and protect nature.     


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“Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, sea level has risen, and the concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased.”

Statement taken from introduction to the IPCC V Assessment Report (AR-5) for policymakers, highlights challenges that international community encounters in arresting detrimental effects of global climate worsening. With increasing degree of confidence expressed by IPCC in every subsequent report, complex negotiations on climate change had largely languished irrespective of the scale of problems. Fortunately, recognition within G-20 countries that climate change is no more possible to be ignored, it has been deliberated over at every G-20 summit since their first assembly in Washington in the year 2008. Quite ironically, members of the forum happen to be the worst climate-offenders offering lamentable platitudes in their communiqués, then cold-storaged with all the conceivable predictability of a sunset after every sunrise !! Hence, if G-20 are to obtain then retain credibility on climate scenario for a global governance forum to function enjoying public trust, it must be determined to do a concrete contribution to the global crisis. Then the world leaders were called upon to commit their presence to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 21st Conference of Parties hereinafter UNFCCC COP-21 held in Paris in the year 2015. Their presence ensured augmented momentum around COP-21, an important signal to non G-20 members that G-20 was not to supersede UNFCCC process. How best to mobilise billions of dollars required to mitigate climate change and it’s adaptation was a prominent issue at Copenhagen, also subject of Report-2010 from UN Secretary General’s Advisory Group on Climate Change Financing.  To set the ball rolling on the issue was more valuable than any commitment to an arbitrary deadline or quantum of financing.

Climate history of earth may yield an accurate assessment of climate sensitivity while inaccurate knowledge of glacial to inter-glacial global temperature change is an obstacle to an accurate assessment of climate sensitivity, a sensitivity that immediately affects humanity. Distributive issues are at the core of negotiating an effective climate change treaty as huge costs are involved in potential climate changes or their prevention. How should benefits accrued from use of resources now believed to be sources of global warming be redistributed ? Negotiations were conducted under UNFCCC towards a mandate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions defining newer contours of property rights. Equity considerations implicit in the mandate, go far beyond direct costs and benefits of climate change to invoke broader issues of past and future access to resources and quality of global environment. While managing the unmanageable, countries must also manage the unavoidable. Unless the world immediately reduces greenhouse emissions significantly, global annual average temperature will rise by about 2.5 to 7 degrees above pre-industrial levels by the end of current century. Temperature rise in the order of 4 degrees shall cause irreversible, potentially catastrophic impact such as extinction of half of species worldwide, inundation of at least 30 percent of coastal wetland and rise in malnutrition, diarrhoeal and cardio-respiratory diseases. According to UNFAO, population of hungry / malnourished has been steadily rising and India slipped to 80th rank in 2015 from 55th in 2014 as reflected in Global Hunger Index Report that maps hunger levels in 104 countries. Food security is also threatened in several countries as detailed in IUCN Report. Even considerable public intervention may not succeed in mitigating disastrous consequences. If global annual average temperature is maintained at 2 degrees above pre-industrial levels by 2050,  such a world shall experience heavy rainfall, intense droughts, floods, heat waves and other extreme weather spikes. Households, communities and planners need initiatives to “reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems against actual and expected climate change effects” according to IPCC-2007. Expected key outcome was an agreement to set a goal of limiting global warming to less than 2 degrees compared to pre-industrial levels. The Deal mandates zero net anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to be reached during the second half of 21st century. In the adopted version of Paris Agreement, member countries shall “pursue efforts to” limit temperature rise to 1.5 degrees which means zero emissions sometime between 2030 and 2050. In absence of these adaptations, development and survival shall be threatened, may be even reversed.

G-20 member countries agreed in recently held Hangzhou conclave to complete their domestic legal formalities for the ratification of PARIS CLIMATE DEAL soon as their “national procedures allow”, a move that pressurises India to expedite the Deal soon. “We reiterate our commitment to sustainable development, strong and effective support and actions to address climate change. We commit to complete our respective domestic procedures in order to join the Paris Agreement as soon as our national procedures allow,” so declared the joint communiqué issued after conclusion of G-20 Summit. Now that China and USA, collectively accounting for almost 40% of world’s Carbon emissions, have ratified the Deal ahead of G-20 summit and handed over their instruments of joining the Deal to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon, India has to discover soon what the most balanced course of action would be. Other G-20 members agreed to complete their domestic legal formalities for the ratification of Paris Climate Deal earliest possible, a move that may allow India leverage of time to craft own strategy in harmony with national developmental goals.

Bharata  is desparately developing indigenous industry maintaining over 7% growth rate, presently highest in the world intending to transform into a  manufacturing hub of reckoning. After a decade of almost negative growth, this level of frenetic manufacturing activity has been attained with painstaking efforts of Prime Minister Modi and his team. Such a hard earned momentum of growth Bharata  can ill-afford to fritter away on any count whatsoever. “We reaffirm the importance of the support provided by the Green Climate Fund. We welcome the G20 Climate Finance Study Group Report on promoting efficient and transparent provision and mobilisation of climate finance to enhance ambition of mitigation and adaptation actions.” declared the joint communique. “We look forward to successful outcomes in related multilateral fora, including the Montreal Protocol and the International Civil Organisation,” it said. Bharata  has so far resisted persistent pressure to commit 2016 as the deadline for ratification of the Deal. Dy. Chairman of NITI Aayog Aravind Panagariya, also our Sherpa at the Summit, declared that Bharata  and several other countries cannot ratify the Deal owing to legal hurdles. On fossil fuels, Panagariya said many other countries including Bharata  did not agree on specific date for withdrawal of fossil fuel subsidies. In his intervention on the Summit’s concluding day, Prime Minister Narendra Modi acknowledged, climate change was one of the foremost challenges with the Paris Deal showing the way forward however, “Focus should not just be on early ratification, but full success.”

Climate change rather worsening, has a cultural aspect too, in addition to scientific, environmental, socio-political and economic aspects. Cultural aspect is in fact, foundational aspect, primary to all other aspects. Our Sanatana  ethos educates us highest eco-friendly virtue of Samyama  i.e. pursuit of asceticism while consuming bounties of nature. It prohibits us from excessive indulgence i.e. of glut and surfeit as we believe, Mother Nature is meant for all and must be allowed to tend to all lives irrespective of body shapes, sizes. Our indulgence with Mother Nature ought to be restricted to minimum levels, barely enough to live in dignity leaving the rest to grow for others. So, another aspect of the sacrosanct virtue of Samyama  emerges that we, all creatures are co-inhabitants in the lap of Mother Nature wherein, Nature too, happens to be one of the co-inhabitants. Third dimension of the cultural aspect as expounded by Pt. Deendayal Upadhyaya, one of the greatest ideologues born in contemporary era, is that Sanatana Darsana  holds our existence to be circular in nature while western philosophers regard that linear in structure. Circular nature entails re-birth after one’s demise and that may be repeated innumerable times depending upon one’s Karmic  involvement with the world. In such a cosmic situation, we cannot afford to destroy nature even a bit as we have to revert soon, pick up threads left behind and move on ahead for the next cosmic cycle of life and death. On the contrary, as linear configuration of existence does not accept life after demise, encourages and validates excessive indulgence so much so that it must not be missed out even in extreme moments of crisis because life at the moment is the first and last one to reckon with.

Only if the world had correctly understood, contemplated over and practised holy virtue of Samyama  before onset of climate crisis, nobody might have heard of climate crisis or Paris Climate Deal at all. 

Published @—Strategic-Ratification.aspx


@ URJA Newsletter September 2017