HINDU-S HAD FIERCELY BATTLED ISLAMIC INVASIONS

Islamic despots and demons brutally massacred Hindus in Bharatvarsa and an entirely false impression was created that they discovered no resistance at all by Hindu  monarchs. This impression was been created by British Occupiers, perpetuated till date by Congress and nourished by Communists.

Hindu always fiercely resisted Islamisation of this nation unlike complete Islamisation of Persia, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Turkey, North Africa etc. In spite of recurrent Islamic invasions that continued for almost 1000 years, more than 80% of the population remained Hindu. It was only due to the bravery and fierce resistance wrought by Hindus and NOT due to any Islamic charity / benevolence, since those beastly invaders had none of these virtues at all. Islamic tyranny in Bharatavarsa was as sanguinary and insidious as it was in all other regions of the globe. Hindus suffered initial setbacks due to innocuous belief amongst them that ultimately, Muslims would behave like civilised beings after sporadic battles and brutalities. However, that was not to be. Mughals were innately mass murderers who could be restrained only by those who could outdo them. Planet Earth deserves to be saved from Islam. Crusaders, Franks and Mongols could prevail over Muslims, that too so long as they nurtured and effectively invoked Islamic mentality of being paranoid mass murderers of Muslims !!

Muslims are paranoid mass murderers even after fourteen centuries ever since the sect of Islam was founded in 622 C.E. As in all regions of the world where Muslims wantonly destroyed everything with their tyrannical habits motivated by their murderous instincts, Hindus too, suffered from mass-murders, rapes, destruction / desecration of their places of worship wrought by Islamic invaders. The only difference was that once the nightmare of Muslim tyranny began, Hindus grew wiser much faster than most of other unfortunate victims across the world, began reciprocating Muslims in their own coin albeit belatedly and intermittently. Unlike Zoroastrians, Hindus never surrendered to Muslim tyrants. They waged a relentless and violent struggle against Muslim occupiers.

It was enormously a valiant Hindu resistance that restrained entire savagery / butchery of Muslims in Bharatavarsa on Hindus. Whenever fortune favored them, Hindus returned the fire in almost equal measure and struck fear in Islamic hearts. Those were Hindu warriors like Krsna Deva Raya, Rani Durgavati, Sivaji Maharaja, Guru Govinda Singh, Banda Singh Bahadura and so many others who bravely confronted them at every point. The reason why Hindus survived thirteen centuries of tyrannical Muslim savagery was that they learned the art of survival in face of Muslim attacks and hit back equally hard. Hindu reprisals were qualitatively different from that of Muslims. Hindus slaughtered Muslims only in battlefields but never slaughtered Muslim civilians, offering the choice of Hinduism or certain death unlike the Islamic practice. Hindus never molested Muslim women en masse, nor did they destroy Masjids en masse, nor did they build temples over ruins of Masjids. Never did Hindus after victory, impose penal tax like Jaziya on all Muslims nor reduce Muslims to such an abject state of servitude that for Muslims, death might have been preferable to living under a ‘tyrannical’ Hindu rule. No record of defeated Muslims committing suicide to protect their honour is anywhere available like Hindu women immolating themselves in Jauhar.

Islamic onslaught started when a Muslim desperado Khalifa Umar invaded Sindh in 638, four years after they invaded Persia in 634. While Persia succumbed by 651, Muslims took 700 years to overrun Bharatvarsa. And even after that they could never rule over Bharatavarsa peacefully. Hindu resistance to those invasions was not only fierce but also continued rising with Marathas hunting down brutal invaders in corner and crevice. When defeated abjectly, Muslim invaders resorted to corrupt and foul means to humiliate and overpower Hindus.

Baluchistan, a Pakistani territory, still has plenty of evidence of being a Hindu region earlier. Hinglaja Mata Mandira is an ancient temple located in Baluchistan near Iran border, is also known as Nani Mata Jo Mandira. The Temple still attracts devotees among Baluch Muslim converts. It is a small temple set in a gorge, evidently shifted here to prevent the Deity being desecrated by Islamic marauders. Several other Hindu temples have been shifted to safer places to ward off tyrannical attacks of Muslim marauders. Bugti clan of Baluchs still have a Hindu sect. Jaswant Singh, ex-External Affairs Minister is a Baluch Hindu, used to visit Hinglaja Temple regularly.

Baluch Hindus had been valiant fighters, resisted invading Arab Muslims tooth and nail for a century beginning with first invasion on Baluchistan at Makara in 638 till 715 when Muslims overran Baluchistan, invaded Sindh to occupy capital town of Deval, a name derived from Devalaya whose ruins still exist 65 miles away from Karachi. After unsuccessful invasions for more than 80 years 638 C.E. onward, Muslims captured Fort of Devala by deceit, by kidnapping three children of chief guard of the fort of Devala, beheading one and threatening to behead the other two. With such devious means, they forced him to leave one of the secret doors open. Owing to this betrayal, Muslims could finally penetrate into Bharatavarsa led by a brutal and beastly leader, Mohammed-ibn-Qasim. Hindus never forgot the treachery, eventually learned a vital lesson from it. In one of the treacherous attacks, Muslims kidnapped two princesses of King Dahirsen of Debal. Leader of Muslim brigands, Qasim sent them as captives to Khilafa, as gifts with a message that they were royal virgins, meant to be ravished by Khalifa himself. Two princesses tore apart their hymen with their own hands and told the Khalifa that their modesty had already been violated by Qasim. After being convinced, Khalifa sent them back to him. Thought of being fooled so enraged the lecherous Khalifa that he summoned Qasim to present himself at Baghdad. With Qasim in chains, the Khalifa charged him of betrayal, locked him in a barrel with nails stuck on the inside and had him rolled down a hill. Thus, Qasim received a poetic justice. From century long fierce Baluch resistance, they have many success stories to their credit. Interestingly, string of reverses that Arabs suffered at Baluch hands, is derisively chronicled by Arabs by saying that Hindus of Makaran practised Voodoo and Black Magic to win wars !!! And that is why Arabs could not defeat Hindus, the way they defeated Persians and Byzantines.

Though a bit of digression, it is pertinent to mention Greek invader Alexander too, had a tough time with Hindus along the river Hydaspes, now Jhelum, his troops mutinied against him and wanted to retreat.

After occupying Sindh, Muslims attacked Punjab but were repulsed. Kings like Raja Bhoj valiantly fought back when Muslims attacked Rajputana. In Gujarat, they were defeated by Chalukyas / Solankis of Anahilwada in the battle of Mount Arbuda, now known as Mt. Abu. That Muslims could not move beyond Sindh from 715 to 980, is a testimony of bravery of Hindus. In 980, they attempted to penetrate into the Kingdom of Shahiya Upaganastan, now Afghanistan. This Muslim invasion was led Persian, Turkish and Mongol convert to Islam and not by Arab Muslims. Sabuktagin was the first Turko-Persian Muslim to attack Hindus and rule from Ghazni to the Kingdom of Afghanistan.

Muslims studied Hindu warfare practices and derived advantage of their weaknesses to the hilt. For instance, Sabuktagin’s spies observed that Hindus battle from sunrise to sunset. Crafty Muslim chieftain decided to leverage this practice of Hindus against Hindus. He challenged Jayapala Shahiya to fight and suggested the place and date for the same, all in 980. True to his word, the Hindu King reached battle-field a day before the battle. Muslims too had assembled at the appointed field and two adversaries exchanged ambassadors and decided, hostilities would commence at sunrise next day. After Hindus merrily retired for the night into deep slumber except a few scouts, Muslim marauders attacked in that dark and stormy night. The storm effectively camouflaged Muslim charge as they stealthily crept towards Hindu camps after crossing over a few hillocks that separated two camps. Muslims muffled noise of their advance by enveloping horse-hooves with felt and cloth pieces. Dressed in dark clothes, Muslims invaded Hindu camps at 2 A.M. in dark night. Before a substantial number of Hindu soldiers could rise to don their armour and fight back, large number of them were slaughtered. By late morning, remnants of Hindu Army retreated to their capital Kubha, now Kabul with Muslims in hot pursuit. Muslims soon occupied Kabul and continued to push Hindus eastwards. On the way, Muslims overran Kubha, destroyed Hindu temples and forcibly converted Hindus who stayed behind, to Islam. After the defeat, disgraced King Raja Jayapala Shahiya  was pressed by his son Anandpala Shahiya to shift capital to Udabandapura, now Und in North West Frontier Province i.e. Pakhtunistan, province of Pakhta tribe mentioned in Mahabharata and finally to Luvkushpura, now Lahore. However, Jayapala could not bear with the humiliation and immolated himself.

Muslims, now led by Sabuktagin’s son Mahmud of Ghazni, were worsted by Hindus who led attacks using armour-clad elephants. Determined to liberate their motherland, Hindus pushed Muslims up to foothills of Pariyatra Parvat i.e. Hindu-Kusha mountains. After these defeats, Muslims realized armour-clad elephants were their nemesis and postponed all invasions. As Muslims had no access to elephants, they decided to subterfuge true to their innate traits since the days of Treaty of Hudaibiya by so-called Prophet Mohammed. According to the conspiracy, Muslims conveyed to Anandpala, they wished peace and be allowed safe passage out of the country. Before departing, they wished to visit Hindu camp, share meals and seal the peace treaty. In spite of being advised to the contrary, unsuspecting Anandpala conceded to invite treacherous Muslim marauders. Lunch was organised on banks of river Ravi where his army had been camping. While moving around in Hindu cantonment, Muslims wanted to know how massive elephants were fed. In the true spirit of Atithi Devo Bhava, Hindu  soldiers escorted them around the camps, Muslim Satans secretly fed those beasts fruits mixed with poppy seeds.

Muslims left for their camps while Hindus, satisfied that the battle was over and peace had been sealed, began dismantling their camps. To their shock, in next few hours, Muslim despots surrounded the Hindu camps and launched a fierce attack with shrieks of Allahuakbar. Hindus realised belatedly, they had been back-stabbed by Muslims, managed to prepare their elephants and charged at Muslims in a disorganised manner. As elephants were intoxicated, they ran helter, skelter and the entire retaliation went horribly wrong. As Anandpala was driven away by his uncontrollable elephant, he was surrounded, beheaded by Muslims, spiked his decapitated head and exhibited before his army. Majority of demoralised Hindu soldiers were mercilessly massacred in battlefield. Through a subterfuge, invincible Hindus became victims of their own innocent follies.

It should have been the last lesson about treachery of Muslims for Hindus. Alas, it was not to be. Dirty tricks were repeated by Muslims much to the brutal slaughter of Hindus and pillage of their wealth. Divinity of Hindus turned into the main factor of their mortification while encountering invading Muslim beasts.

After slaughtering Hindus through subterfuge at Lahore, Muslims began to penetrate deeper into the country. Anandpala was martyred through deceit of Muslims as had his father, Jayapala. Teenaged grandson of Jayapala Shahiya, just 17 by then, Trilochanpala Shahiya assumed reins of the kingdom. Shahiya empire, once stretched from Yamuna to Kabul was now a shadow of former glory. Trilochanpala shifted capital from Lahore to Kangra in Himachal Pradesh, relatively fortified from where he reorganized defence of vastly reduced domain. He aligned himself with kingdoms of Kashyapmeru (Kashmir) and Tibet, to eject Muslims from Punjab and Upaganasthan  i.e. Afghanistan. As Mahmud Ghazni, aspired to nip those efforts in bud, he again plotted a subterfuge, sent a group of his soldiers masquerading Hindu mendicants to call on Trilochanpala. On reaching Kangra these mendicants conveyed, they came from Kubha and brought a message of peace to the young King. Thus they gained entry into Trilochanpala’s fortress of Kangra. Once in his presence, mendicants surrounded the unsuspecting young prince and brutally slaughtered him. Few days later, Muslim army invaded Kangra Valley, stormed the fort and plundered entire opulence of the Shahiya empire. That was 1020 C.E. Thus, annihilation of Shahiya empire was complete spanning a war over three generations. Few centuries later, people even doubted if Shahiyas ever existed at all !! A dynasty that had been guarding North West Frontier of Bharata since Kushanas of III Century C.E., disappeared into history. Ruins of the fortress of Kangra still exist.

Next Hindu King Maharaja Ranjita Singh of Punjab and Afghanistan ascended the throne after 800 years in 18th century. The interregnum was one of the darkest periods of Muslim tyranny during which majority of Hindus in Afghanistan, Pakhtunistan and West Punjab were converted to Islam at sword-point. Mahmud Ghaznavi plundered and destroyed Hindu shrines at Purushapura (Peshawar), Luvkuspura (Lahore), Mulasthana (Multan), Somnatha, Palitana, Sthaneswara (Thanesar), Mathura, Kannauj, Khajuraho at regular intervals. Initially he aimed to collect as much wealth and Hindu captives as possible who were later sold for slavery in Baghdad and other cities. So many of them died on the way and Muslim beasts coined the name Hindu-Kusha  to the region of western Himalayas wherein Kusha  means to kill in Persian while original name had been Pariyatra Parvat.

When Mahmud Ghazni’s son Masud Ghazni invaded with the intention to occupy and rule, he was spectacularly defeated at Baharaich in June 1033. He was surrounded by several Hindu armies who fought ferociously and entire Ghazni’s army was slaughtered following the tradition of Shri Rama who decimated entire army of Ravana. The battle ended on June 14, 1033 and not one Muslim soldier was allowed to go back alive. His grave is now known as Ghazi Pir Ki Mazar. Today lot of Hindus ignorantly go there in reverence to pay respects !! After this crushing defeat of Muslims, for some 150 years there were no invasions at all !! But, Hindus were and are after all, Hindus !! In this interregnum of 154 years, Hindus forgot all those agonies and treachery of Muslims they had undergone, ready to welcome several more rounds in future !! Yet another dirty trick Muslims resorted to was issuing coins with inscriptions in Samskrita using terms like Mahamada for Mohammed just to win over trust of Hindu.

Next Muslim onslaught came in the year 1187 when the Muslim chieftain of Ghor in Afghanistan, overthrew Ghaznavid ruler in Ghazni. In 1187, after a lapse of 200 years, these ex-Hindus had become cruel and merciless like any other Muslim with not a trace of their Hindu ancestry perceptible anywhere in their minds except for the name Gauri, derived from Gau i.e. cow in Samskrita. Mohammed Ghori now found his way into Bharata blocked by three powerful Hindu Kingdoms – Solankis (Chalukyas) of Anahilwada in Gujarat, Chahmanas (Chouhans) of Delhi, Ajmer and Sambhar; and Rathods (Gahadwals) of Kannauj. Mohammed allied himself with the Muslim Governor of Sindh, unleashed brutal fury of his aggression on Gujarat. To his misfortune, Solankis of Anahilwada, miserably defeated him on the plains of Mount Arbuda (Abu) and forced him to retreat across Thar desert. Thus Solankis of Gujarat once again lit the bright flame of Hindu valour in Gujarat by repelling Muslim invasion. This flame was to be lit next when they retaliated massively against Muslims who had roasted alive 59 Hindu pilgrims in a Railroad coach near Godhra Railroad Terminal when they were returning from pilgrimage from Ayodhya. The dynasty founded by Babar should be addressed as ‘Barbarians’ as they demolished temples, brutally killed Hindus cruelly raped Hindu women, slaughtered even those Hindu soldiers who had surrendered in good faith. Incidentally, Akbar had slaughtered 30,000 Rajput soldiers who had surrendered to him at Chittora.

Mohammed Ghori attempted invading Bharata from the other side of Thar deserts, domain of Maharaja of Sambhar (Shakambara) Prithviraj Chauhan, known for his bravery and chivalry. Ghori studied Hindu warfare, advanced through Punjab and laid siege of Bathinda fort on the border of Prithvitraja’s domains. Soon he had to face wrath of Rajputs at Tarain in Haryana where two armies battled furiously. Fierce onslaughts of the Rajput cavalry smashed Muslim ranks and they fled leaving their Sultan Mohammed Ghori at the mercy of Prithviraja Chauhan. Fleeing Muslim General Kutub-ud-din Aibak let loose a large herd of cows chained to each other to block the path of chasing Rajput army. With their path blocked by cows, it was impossible for Rajputs to move ahead and Muslims shrewdly made good their escape minimising their losses and preventing large number of Muslim soldiers from being captured and butchered. When the captured Mohammed Ghori was brought before Prithviraja Chauhan incarcerated in iron chains, he pretended to be repentant seething with rage at being humiliated for having been captured by a Kafir King. Mohammed Ghori begged for mercy and assured, he would never lift his eyes toward Bharata.

Those farcical entreaties turned credulous Prithviraja compassionate who ordered removal of chains. In his feigned gratitude Ghori addressed Prithviraja as his “brother” !! Ignoring advice of his friend Chandra Vardai, his General Hammira and brave warrior twins Aalaa and Udal, he ordered Ghori to be released and as a token of generosity, returned his 500 horses and 20 elephants captured in the battle. Had Mohammed Ghori not been pardoned and released, Muslim invasions would have ceased and our history would have been altogether different today. On reaching Ghor, Mohammed reneged on his promise, promptly slaughtered Rajput escorts, envoys that Privithraja had sent to accompany Mohammed to Ghor. With utter contempt, Ghori sent their severed heads as a token of “goodwill” to shocked and astonished Prithviraj. Mohammed Ghori immediately started preparing for another assault on Bharata. Going by the experience of his two defeats at the hands of Solankis and Chauhans, the wily twice beaten Mohammed decided to go by subterfuge.

Following year, Mohammed reneged on his promise, attacked Bharata once again. Two armies gathered in the same battlefield of Tarain in 1191. Rajput army had camped near a river for their morning ablutions before the battle could be resumed next morning as was decided by both rivals. Mohammed Ghori’s spies had briefed him, Hindus battled from sunrise to sunset only. Throwing all commitments to winds, Muslim army attacked at 3 A.M. before dawn when Prithviraj’s soldiers had begun their morning ablutions and some were still asleep. But they did their best to group their forces and counter-attack Muslims. The unexpected battle continued till noon, Muslims slaughtered large number of Rajputs. However Rajputs did not yield, fought bravely, slaughtered treacherous Muslims too and gained upper hand. By midday, it appeared second battle of Tarain would also go the way the first one had gone. Mohammed saw victory slipping from his hands once again. So he resorted to another patented Muslim subterfuge of single combat, Mard-o-Mard in Persian.

With the intention to humiliate Prithviraj, Mohammed sent a word that he would call off the battle if Prithviraja fought his champion Qutub-ud-din Aibak in single combat. To save lives of his soldiers and to conclude the battle, Prithviraja agreed. Rule in single combat was that when one combatant is either pinned down or killed, his army concedes defeat and retreats. No other combatant was allowed to participate in this combat, hence the name – single combat. For the insidious Mughals, no rule was valid in the battle. Prithviraja’s sword came down heavily on Qutub who resorted to a feint, cut off one of the legs of Prithviraja’s horse by whirling below his saddle. Prithviraja tripped and fell off his badly injured horse. Qutub should have also dismounted and fought Prithviraja on foot. Instead,  truculent Muslim soldiers jumped on Prithviraja, pinned him down, pressed on his face a dose of hashish. They now chained drugged Prithviraja and galloped away with him before Rajputs could realize and react to this unexpected act of treachery. Captive and drugged Prithviraj was now perched on one of elephants that Prithviraj had gifted to Mohammed Ghori earlier. Muslims spread rumour that Prithviraj was dead holding aloft his ‘dead’ body to convey futility of fighting any more. When Rajputs beheld their King apparently dead with his corpse in hands of their enemy, they lost nerve and retreated to their fortified capital at Mehrauli near Delhi. Muslims retreated with the captured Prithviraj to Afghanistan.

When Prithviraj was presented in chains before Mohammed Ghori, he reminded him how he was presented before Prithviraja in chains and how honourably Prithviraj had released him. Mohammed and his courtiers burst into derisive laughter at Prithviraja and told him, he did not understand Islam and Muslim psyche ! When Prithviraja stared at Mohammed and his courtiers, Mohammed ordered him to lower his eyes as he was now a captive. When Prithviraja told him that Rajput’s eyes are lowered only after death, Mohammed ordered, Prithviraja’s eyes be pierced with red hot irons. He kept blinded Pritiviraja in solitary confinement and had him occasionally hauled to his court for being made fun as the “Lion of Delhi”. During this period of humiliating captivity, Prithviraja was joined by his friend and biographer Chandra Vardai who joined his master in prison after offering himself as a prisoner to Mohammed. It was in prison plan to avenge his betrayal and humiliation was hatched. Before an annual event of Buskhazi (wild sports that Muslims organised), Chandra Vardai told Mohammed, Prithviraja would like to display his skills in archery on the condition he would accept orders only from a King who had defeated him earlier. Since Mohammed was the only king who had defeated him, Mohammed Ghori himself would have to order Prithviraj to shoot the arrow to which he readily agreed !

On the designated day Prithviraja was brought to the assemblage, Mohammed ordered Prithviraja to shoot, Chandra Vardai in the following poetic stanza “Char bans, chaubis gaj, angul asta pramaan I Ete pai Sultan hai, ab mat chuko Chouhan II” (Ten measures ahead of you and twenty four feet away, is seated the Sultan. Do not miss him now, Chouhan). On hearing these words Prithviraja whirled in the direction of Mohammed and shot three arrows one after the other and wounded Mohammed fatally. Thus Prithviraja had his justice though he lost his kingdom due to the blunder and Bharata lost sovereignty to Islamic invaders.

After dubious victories over northern Bharata in Punjab and Bengal, Muslims turned towards Odisha where they met their match in Narasimha Deva in 1248 CE. Odisha was then known as Utkal, synthesis of Uttama and Kala i.e. excellent period in view of resurgence of arts and sculpture.

Brave natives of Odisha had already given very tough time to Samrata Ashoka Maurya during 3rd century BCE led by King Kumar of Kalinga before Odisha could be annexed by Mauryan Empire. In 13th century when invaded by Tugan Khan, King Narsimha Deva decided to use subterfuge against Muslims. He conveyed his resolve to surrender even without battle as done by King Lakshman Sena of Bengal. Tugan Khan had easily conquered Bengal few years ago. He found Bengal as an easy victory as the King fled from advancing Muslim armies and Bengal fell without a fight. Having tasted blood of victory in Bengal, Tugan Khan thought that conquest of Odisha would also be a cakewalk. Tugan had been bragging around, he had instilled fear of death in Hindu hearts, could overrun entire country in a single campaign. However, that was not to be. King Narsimha Deva decided to invoke well-known Muslim tool of subterfuge against invaders. He conveyed a word to Tugan that Odisha was ready to surrender without a fight which Tugan immediately accepted, asked for surrender of the city of Puri, an important holy Hindu shrine. King Narasimha Deva had his capital at Jajanagara. Tugan’s other conditions included handing over of all weapons to Muslim invaders, embracing Islam by entire population in front of Jagannatha Temple or agreeing to pay Jazia, convert Jagannatha Temple into a Mosque as an acknowledgement of submission. Much to the delight of Muslims, all these terms were readily accepted and Muslims advanced into the city blissfully unaware, shrewd Hindu King had laid a trap for them. On orders of King Narasimha Deva, bustling city had been completely evacuated of pilgrims, soldiers from all over the kingdom had occupied every nook and cranny of the city, hidden inside closely built houses across welter of narrow lanes. Once Muslims  were inside the city, they had to disperse into unfamiliar narrow lanes and bylanes where they had to dismount from their horses to advance in a single file towards central square where surrender ceremony was supposed to be staged. As planned, suddenly temple bells started ringing loudly and Hindus pounced upon Muslims. The battle lasted entire day and night pierced by shrieks of deeply wounded and dying Muslims. Entire Muslim army was slaughtered like flies / mosquitoes and hardly anyone could escape. Muslims had not known this strategy, were trounced very badly. Odisha thus, remained a Hindu bastian for several centuries. Even today percentage of Muslims in Odisha is low as compared to Bengal where the then King had surrendered abjectly like a coward before invading Mughals. Sun Temple was erected by King Narsimha Deva in Konark i.e. ‘Essence of the Corners’ designed as a chariot to commemorate the historic victory of valiant Hindus over beastly Muslim invaders. The Temple is a marvel of astronomy, favourite discipline of study of the King.

Kings of Vijayanagar and Rajputana too, often used to invoke subterfuge to conquer invading Mughals. Vijaynagar was the first Hindu kingdom that gave up Hindu practice of not engaging with non-combatants and survived from 1331 to 1565. Whenever Vijaynagar army overran any Bahamani town or village, they torched it to ashes. With this they instilled mortal scare deep into Muslim minds and soon, Adilshahi and Nizamshahi Sultans begged for a treaty with Vijaynagar that would proscribe slaughter of civilians by either side. The treaty was followed by Hindus and Muslims till Vijaynagar was finally defeated in the battle of Talikotai, then savagely destroyed by Muslims as they repudiated the treaty just as their founder had repudiated the  treaty of Hudaibiya. Muslims now indulged in brutal slaughter of all Hindus in Vijaynagar. They killed everyone they could lay their hands on and not a single person was allowed to survive in that beleaguered city. Invincible empire of Vijayanagar was reduced to ruins within six months.

All these historical events imparted two precious lessons to natives of the country –

Only when Muslims are reciprocated in the same coin, they come to their senses albeit temporarily. However, Muslims cannot be trusted since commitment is only a matter of expediency and convenience. Whenever fortune favors them, they renege on their pledge unhesitatingly ! 

Founder of Islam set a precedent for them with repudiation of the Treaty of Hudaibiya with Quraish of Makkah !!

In the same wisdom, when non-Muslims are constrained into an agreement with Muslims, non-Muslims must repudiate any treaty with Muslims and fight back to destroy as there is no other way for mankind to survive the creed of Islam.

Marathas under visionary leadership of Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj liberated their province of Maharashtra from Muslim tyranny and took the flame of fearless freedom all over the country. Shivaji epitomized successful Hindu onslaughts on Mughals where he outdid Mughals in their sport of deceit, treachery, subterfuge, all packaged into guerilla warfare that left Mughals sleepless and terrified. Astute Marathas succeeded in limiting Mughal marauders to a great extent. Marathas marched towards northern Bharata to throw away Mughals from Delhi in 1720, then via Punjab into Attock in Pakhtunistan by 1756. It was Mughal tyrant Aurangzeb who realised it as demise of Islamic power in Bharata. With them it appeared,  wisdom had finally dawned upon some of Hindus to counter-attack Mughals successfully. By practising deceit and cruelty as a rule against Mughals, Marathas looked poised to dislodge Mughal power from Bharata.

In 1312, Gujarat was overrun by Mughal tyrants who had a century earlier occupied Delhi. As usual, Mughals slaughtered countless Hindus after every victory. They also carried away scores of beautiful women and handsome young men as captive sex slaves. One such handsome man was Khusro Khan,  who belonged to Makwana sub-caste of northern Gujarat. All captives were forcibly converted to Islam and brought up as slaves. After 15 years in captivity Khusro Khan forgot even his original name,  faintly recollected he had a different childhood which he shared with other captives from Gujarat. His stunning features and fair complexion evoked perverted lust of his captor Sultan Allaudin Khilji’s perverted son, Qutbuddin Mubarak Khilji. Qutbuddin Mubarak had fondness for his teenage slave Khusro Khan who was sexually abused by Qutbuddin Mubarak for eight years while Khusro seethed in anger for revenge against the barbarity that robbed him of his childhood and youth. In 1320, Qutbuddin killed his ageing father Allaudin and crowned himself Sultan. By then, Khusro had gained influence over Qutbuddin. Khusro had also used this influence to gather other captives like him, armed them to become Qutbuddin’s bodyguards. During struggle for power in 1320, opportune moment arrived for Khusro when he was appointed in charge of guarding royal quarters. Qutbuddin Mubarak had dismissed all men appointed by his slain father in palace and army. Khusro killed Qutbuddin Mubarak Khilji, crowned himself Sultan and assumed the title of Khusro Khan. It was a tremendous shock for Mughals occupying Delhi when Khusro declared himself to be a Hindu again !! When he ascended the throne, Khusro Khan was only 19. Muslims were shell-shocked, stunned into inaction by trusted aides of Khusro. However, they began plotting overthrow of Khusro Khan as he was a Murtad abjuring Islam. Eventually after a year, Ghazi Malik slew Khusro, re-established Muslim rule in Delhi and founded Tughluq dynasty.

However, the event was a great morale booster for Hindus which proved, determined Hindus with grit and shrewdness could overturn Mughal rule in Bharata. On 24th January 1556 CE, Mughal ruler Humayun slipped while climbing down steps of his library and fell to his death. Akbar was enthroned as emperor on Feb. 14, 1556. Hemu Vikramaditya as main threat to Akbar, was chief minister of Afgan Prince Adil Shah who led a surprise attack on Delhi in October 1556. Mughal forces under Tardi Beg Khan panicked and fled from the battlefield. It was Hemu’s twenty second victory in successive battles. After capture of Delhi, Hemu crowned himself sovereign ruler with the title of ‘Raja Vikramaditya’. At this juncture, Akbar and Bairam Khan decided to press forward against Hemu’s superior forces on Nov. 5, 1556 at Panipat. First battle was lost by Mughals while in second, brave Hemu veered too close to enemy ranks atop his elephant when an archer pierced his eye and cerebral cavity leading him to unconsciousness. As Hemu slumped in the howdah of his famous elephant Hawai, Akbar’s General, Shah Quli Khan captured the elephant with the coveted occupant and presented before Akbar. Bairam advised Akbar to perform the ‘holy act’ of slaying the infidel to earn Islamic title of ‘Ghazi’. Amidst self-congratulations, Akbar severed head of unconscious Hemu with his saber to complete the gory ‘holy’ work. Hemu’s head was sent to Kabul as a sign of victory to women of Humayun’s Harem while Hemu’s torso was sent to Delhi for exposure on a gibbet. Iskandar Khan chased Hemu’s fleeing army, captured 1500 elephants, brutally slaughtered all those who were captured and following custom of his ancestors Taimur / Chengiz Khan, Akbar had a victory pillar raised with severed heads of slaughtered Hindu soldiers perched on top. British traveller Peter Mundy visiting Mughal empire some 75 years later (during reins of Jahangir / Shah Jahan), found such towers were still under construction. Hemu’s wife escaped from Delhi with the treasure, could not be captured by Pir Mohammad Khan’s troops in spite of intensive chase. Hemu’s aged father was captured and on refusing to accept Islam, executed. 

So is the reality of so-called ‘glorious’ history of Akbar’s victory in Panipat. Akbar displayed his “glorious greatness” again when he ordered cold blooded slaughter of 30,000 Rajput soldiers who had surrendered before him after the battle of Chittora.

Mughals made many attempts for long to swallow Assam but Ahom Kings of Assam bravely / stoutly defeated every Mughals incursion into Assam. Finally, Mughals raided Assam with a huge force during the reign of Aurangzeb. Shrewd Assamese King laid a trap for Muslim invaders at Saraighat on Bramhaputra riverbank. Battle of Saraighat was fought in 1671 between Mughals and Ahoms led by Lachit Borphukan, Governor of Guwahati at Saraighat near Guwahati. In spite of being weaker than Mughals, Ahoms defeated the Mughal with a combination of guerrilla tactics, psychological warfare and military intelligence. In a surprise attack during night, Lachit Barphukan dramatically captured crucial Mughal post in north Guwahati thereafter, their fort in south Guwahati. Their deadly cannons were disabled by Lachit’s subordinate Bagh Hazarika by pouring water into cannon’s barrels to destroy entire stock of gunpowder, then bombarded their fort with their cannons. After heavy fire, Mughals were trounced and they abandoned Guwahati. Lachit Barphukan now expected a heavy retaliatory attack by Mughals, undertook all necessary preparations, raised hurdles and Garhs i.e. earthen walls around Guwahati relying upon surrounding hillocks with Brahmaputra river as a natural barrier. Lachit was thorough in his approach and ruthless in preparing for defence. He even went to the extent of beheading his uncle for neglecting his responsibilities. When Lachit asked his uncle why the work was not progressing as expected, his uncle complained of boredom. Lachit in a fit of fury beheaded his uncle and declared “my uncle is not greater than my country.” Mughals struck back in March 1679 with an army of 30000 infantrymen, 15000 archers, 18000 Turkish cavalry, 5000 gunners, more than 1000 cannons and a large flotilla of boats. They employed Portuguese and other European sailors to manage the fleet and sailed on Brahmaputra from Dhaka to Guwahati. Lachit’s spies kept him posted about their advances. Mughals then, laid siege to Guwahati that lasted more than a year. Lachit fought hiding behind barriers conscious of his small cavalry confronting huge Mughal cavalry. His guerrilla attacks against Mughals were highly effective inflicting heavy casualties. Several Mughal efforts to bribe Lachit with power, position and treasure as done successfully with some Rajputs, failed to tempt him. Every such attempt to corrupt him was responded scornfully. In spite of several desperate efforts, Mughals failed to defeat Lachit to capture Guwahati. By now the Ahom King became impatient, ordered Lachit to attack Mughals on open ground. Lachit reluctantly followed this command, attacked Mughals in Allaboi. After initial success in Ahoms capturing Mughal Commander Mir Nawab, Ahom army was decimated by the Mughal cavalry on open plains with casualties running into 10,000 troops approximately. Lachit succeeded in withdrawing his forces and retreated with no other option left to reckon with at that moment. Mughals could not penetrate the defence, launched a massive assault from the river at Saraighat. They had huge boats, some carrying as many as sixteen cannons. Ahom soldiers were demoralised after losses at Allaboi and their Chief Lachit Borphukan was seriously ill. At the sight of massive Mughal fleet, they lost their will to fight and commenced retreat. Lachit had been observing all these developments from his deathbed. Despite having high fever, he advanced head on against Mughal fleet followed by seven other boats. The bold move inspired his retreating army to rally behind him. Fierce battle that ensued on Brahmaputra witnessed Ahoms outmaneuvering large, sluggish Mughal boats with the river littered with drowned Muslim soldiers. Mughals were thus, decisively defeated, forced to retreat from Guwahati and entire Ahom territory up to Manas River. So ended the Battle of Saraighat annointing Lachit Barphukan as a legend in Assam and the battle is remembered as a glorious Ahom victory.

Hardly any account is known about Muslim attacks on Nepal and Tibet. Flushed with comfortable successes Mohammad bin Tughlak, Mughal maniac decided to conquer Hindu Kingdom of Nepal and Buddhist  Tibet, convert Gurkhas and Tibetans to Islam. In 1402, Tughlak launched first assault on Himalayas. Nepalese King knew fate of Hindu Kings, refused to confront Muslims in Nepalese Terai. Shrewd Nepalese King withdrew his army into snow covered Himalayan forest, joined Tibetan forces as Tughlak had made it obvious to overrun Tibet after conquest of Nepal. Muslims marched through deserted Nepalese villages, burnt fields and ransacked villages. Fatigued Muslims marched on albeit reluctantly, on the orders of Mohammed bin Tughlak. As Muslims went deeper into Himalaya, they were forced to march in small units across valleys when joint Nepalese Tibetean forces pounced upon them beyond Pokhra. In those snow clad barren terrain, battle used to be joined by hardened Gurkhas on the way and they all butchered wearied Muslim troops mercilessly. Invading Muslims were brutally slaughtered and only a few stragglers could return to plains to tell the sorry tale of this ignominious defeat. After this massacre of Islamic brutes, no Muslim ruler ever dared to attack Nepal. So Nepal remained a Hindu Kingdom along with Assam and Orissa all through seven hundred years of Mughal tyranny in north. It is this glorious victory that preserved Hindu character of Nepal intact. Had Muslims been able to overrun Nepal, they would have forcibly converted Gurkhas to Islam and today we would have seen Muslim Gurkhas wielding their Khukhris to terrorize remaining Hindus in Nepal to convert them into Islam, indulge in terror attacks against Bharata. Mandirs of Pashupatinath, Bhaktapur, Patan and Hanuman Dhokha, all would have been converted into Masjids as at Kashi, Ayodhya, Mathura and several other places.

In Punjab, Hindus resisted Islam by eradicating deficiencies and by outmatching Islamic ruthlessness. Guru Arjan Dev Ji was the first Guru to be martyred during reign of Jahangir who sentenced Guruji to be beheaded after being tortured for days. After being savagely tortured, he expressed his last wish to bathe in river Ravi before being beheaded. Guru Arjan Dev Ji went into the river and disappeared in swirling currents never to return. Thus he was the first Sikh Guru to lay down his life due to Mughal oppression. Sikhism came to rise as a militant wing of Hindu community and Sikhs being defenders of Hinduism was strengthened during tenures of 9th and 10th Gurus, Tegh Bahadur and Govind Singh. During their tenure, nature of Sikhism underwent fundamental changes, transformed into an aggressive military theocracy. 

Aurangzeb unleashed a wave of severe oppression on non-Muslims to Islamize the country. As Mughal oppression found tough resistance from Sikhs, they became favourite target of Mughals. Guru Tegh Bahadur was approached by a group of Kashmiri Brahamans for protection from Mughals. Thereupon the Guru decided to approach the fanatical Mughal occupier Aurangzeb himself for redressal of grievances where he was abused, threatened and told to accept Islam at the pain of death. To prove his word the Mughal occupier Aurangzeb tourtured members of his entourage to death one after the other. However, Guru Tegh Bahadur maintained his composure and calmly demanded halt to repressive measures. Aurangzeb, The Monster decided to teach him a lesson and present an example to his followers. He ordered the Guru to be beheaded. Thus after Guru Arjan Dev, Tegh Bahadur was the second Sikh Guru to meet a violent death at Mughal hands. When Guru Tegh Bahadur was martyred, his son Govindrai became Guru Govind Singh, determined to carry out the struggle against Mughal oppression. He radically transformed Sikh sect which led to first major split among Sikhs.

Transformation of Sikhism into Khalsa Panth was formally initiated by Guru Govind Singh Ji on Baisakhi, 1699. Newly founded community was anointed as Khalsa Panth i.e. Holy Sect and their followers were mandated to be far more strict in adhering to principles of the sect. 

Adherants of the Khalsa were required to wear five visible symbols on their persons –

Unshorn Hair (Kesha), curved dagger (Krpana), comb (Kangha), steel bangle (Kada) and a pair of shorts (Kachha). 

All members of the sect were ordained to suffix their name with ‘Singh’ meaning ‘lion’. Guru Gobind Singh’s goal in constituting the Panth was to raise a militarized community capable of resisting Mughal oppression. An anecdote about his forming of Khalsa army is worth recalling.

Once the Guru was delivering an inspiring speech before a group of Sikh youths on the necessity of every youth in the community to be ready to sacrifice everything including his life for the cause of his faith. Response of youths was enthusiastic and many expressed their readiness to get enrolled in Khalsa Panth. However, Guru’s standards of integrity were very high, demanded heads of those who wanted to join Khalsa. He pulled out his sword and beckoned enthusiastic youths to come forward and lay down their lives there and then. Youths were stunned, speechless and nobody volunteered to sacrifice his life while the Guru waited with his unsheathed sword in his hand. Finally, one youth turned up and offered his head to the Guru saying, his head already belonged to the Guru and he could have had it if he so desired. Guru caught hold of the youth, led him inside the sacrificial tent that had been erected for the reckoning. After a few moments, piercing shrieks rented the sky while the Guru emerged from tent, his hand held a blood-stained sword. Guru now demanded next head. His audience was benumbed at the gruesome scene and many devotees fled the place in fear exclaiming, the Guru had gone mad ! Those five in number, who had offered their heads to the Guru, were the first Panj Pyaras. Contrary to the impression that he created, after leading every youth into the tent, Guru embraced each of them and installed them as his select soldiers who were to raise Khalsa Army. Guru decided to have Panj-Pyaras observe 5 Kakkars which included wearing Kada signifying bangle, as a symbol of unfulfilled commitment of overthrowing Mughal tormentors. This aspect of Kada signifying feminine shame was later ignored for obvious reasons in Sikh legends. So spurred to avenge their oppression by Muslims finally led to successes under Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1799.

Banda Bairagi became a Keshadhari and anointed as Banda Singh Bahadur by the Guru. Banda Singh Bahadur fought relentlessly against Muslims. After leading a traumatic life full of nerve-rattling adventures, he was brutally slaughtered after being captured by Muslims and forced to swallow flesh of his sons butchered in front of him. Banda died a heroic death fighting Mughals.

Afghan King Ahmed Shah Abdali invaded Bharata in 1759, burnt down Harmindar Saheb Gurudwara at Amritsar on his way to Delhi. As he was planning to settle in Bharata, he was challenged by Marathas who were then, on their ascendance. From 1740 to 1760, battle between Afghans and Marathas for domination of northern Bharata continued. With defeat of Mughal Mohammed Shah by Nadir Shah in 1740, whose general was Ahmed Shah Abdali, Mughal power steadily declined and their space was usurped by Rohillas who were led by an ambitious and ruthless chieftain named Najib Khan. Najib’s ambition was to supplant Mughal Occupier and crown himself as the ruler of Bharata by capturing Delhi. Growing power of Marathas in their northward expansion, stood between Najib and his ambition. To defeat Marathas, Najib invited Ahmed Shah Abdali from Afghanistan in 1755 to help him and crown himself ruler of Bharata. He was thwarted by Marathas who defeated Rohillas and Afghans near Delhi in 1756. The defeat was so decisive that Najib Khan surrendered to Marathas and became their prisoner. Maratha forces were led by Shrimant Raghunath Rao and Malhar Rao Holkars. After defeating Afghan-Rohilla forces, Marathas pursued Afghans in Punjab upto Khyber Pass. Last frontier of Marathas was Attock in today’s NWFP i.e. Paktoonistan on Afghan border. Thus, 800 years after last Punjab King Tirlochan Pal Shahi had been defeated by Mahmud of Ghazi in 1020 C.E., did that region of Bharata reverted to a Hindu King in 1756 with the liberation of Punjab by Marathas. Meanwhile with false promises, conspiracies and treachery, Najib Khan influenced Malhar Rao Holkar and secured his release. Thereafter, Najib undermined Marathas once again and treacherously killed Dattaji Shinde (eldest brother of Mahadji Shinde) . Najib continued to battle Shindes till 1757-58 and re-invited Ahmed Shah Abdali to invade Bharata.

When Abdali invaded second time in 1759, Marathas allied with the Jat King Suraj Mal of Bharatpur led by Sadshiv Rao and Vishwas Rao, sons of Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao and registered spectacular victories, captured Delhi and Kunjapura where Afghan treasury and armoury were located. The alliance ran into problems due to Maratha insistence on pursing a head on confrontation with Abdali instead of following Jat King’s advice to wage guerilla warfare against them, destroy them from rear and deny them sustenance, supplies from Muslim Rohillas. Suraj Mal advised Marathas to leave their women, courtiers, retainers in Bharatpur fort and fight without so many encumbrances. However, Rao brothers were egged on by Maratha womenfolk and declined the counsel. The Council appealed to Sujan Singh (Maharaja Suraj Mal) to express his views –

“Honourable Chairman ! Principality of our country is in hands of Peshwas these days. Mughals are nominal emperors. Their court has become an arena of clowns and jokers. This time you come here as leader of Maharasstra Mandal sent by Peshwa. You have travelled a distance of thousands of miles to save the country and religion. All our wealth and lives are dedicated to you. Do not fear Abdali. We stand for the prestige of the Peshwa. These days the Peshwa is like a sheet to cover Hindu faith. You are his brother and you have a keen desire to strengthen Bharata. You are our representative. We, on behalf of all Hindus of Bharata, offer you respect equal to the Peshwa. First you are a Brahmana, then you are a crown of Hindus. We shall sacrifice our everything for you. My 25,000 soldiers, 60 cannons and entire army of Sarv-Khap Panchayat of Haryana will be in your service. Think a little over my views and rest is up to you to accept it or not. You are elder and elders may only be beseeched. My suggestions are as under –

  1. Before the battle, provisions should be accumulated in a safe place like Brij or Bharatpur.
  2. By accompanying ladies in the battle, our strength shall be divided. They should therefore be kept in the fort of Deeg.
  3. Establish the centre for heavy weapons and other articles at a distant place and fight the battle with a guerilla strategy.
  4. Involve Abdali’s army in a battle till summer falls, then launch a vigorous attack.
  5. Do not harm a place of Mohammedan worship. Call a council in the court and choose a Mughal Prince as your Chief to gain their sympathy. Do not touch precious articles kept in the fort so that Mohammedans may not use this opportunity to do propaganda against us. Invite as many Chiefs as possible to join you and do not divide the organization.
  6. All Mohammedans of Bharata will remain with Abdali. Mughal courtiers are involved in conspiracies. You must not trust them, yet you must listen to them.
  7. It is my special appeal to your chief commandant Ibrahim Gardi that he should consult me for war strategy. For five to six months, guerilla attacks should only be made that too, only now and then. Maintain your contact with Delhi.
  8. Heavy losses in the battle of Kunjpura has familiarized Abdali of our power. For some time Abdali had been collecting provisions and troops from Rohilla State. So the battle is to be fought decisively. Victory or loss is in hands of Ishvara.”

Refusal of Sadashiv Rao Bhau to accept Suraj Mal’s sagacious advice finally split the alliance and Suraj Mal withdrew. Marathas consequently marched upto Panipat, stayed at Panipat blocking the way of Afghans back to Afghanistan instead of fighting Abdali and Najib. Afghans now became restless and they in turn, decided to block the way of Marathas back to Deccan. This stand-off continued for one whole year from Jan. 14, 1760 to Jan. 14, 1761. Morale of stranded Marathas declined and it led to their defeat in Panipat. Afghans with Najib Khan also recaptured Delhi and Kunjpura. On the decisive day of Jan. 14, 1761, Marathas decided to break-through Afghan blockade and re-enter Deccan. The battle was a disaster  and 1 lakh Maratha soldiers were slaughtered in just 8 hours. However, Afghans too suffered heavily and decided to return to Afghanistan never to come back. In spite of the split in Jat-Maratha alliance, 25000 Jats from the Sarv Khap fought against Muslims alongside Marathas at Panipat and attained martyrdom. Abdali never returned to Bharata but his decscendants did. Invasion of Abdali’s grandson Sher Shah was one such attempt. Now the invader was challenged by Sikhs. Sher Shah could not proceed beyond Lahore due to the challenge of Sarbat Khalsa. It was the last Muslim invasion to be defeated by the people of Punjab.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh was born in 1780 and witnessed these turbulent times in Punjab’s history. By 1799, Maharaja Ranjeet Singh started his attempt to unify different Sikh sects that grew into a powerful Sikh Kingdom till his demise. Sikh Kingdom was the last one that held out against Mughals and British. After Afghan exit, Sikhs reasserted themselves in Punjab and Maharaja Ranjit Singh organised a kingdom with Lahore as their capital. His Kingdom extended beyond Hindu Kush into Afghanistan. Hari Singh Nallua, one of his brave generals,  pushed frontiers of Kingdom deep into Afghanistan, brought back the original gate of Somnath Temple desecrated by Mahmud of Ghazni during 11th century. Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s reign marked consolidation of Bharata’s sovereignty in Punjab after first Islamic invasion in 1020. Marathas had broken continuous Muslim occupation of Punjab by liberating it in 1756 and Maharaja Ranjit Singh consolidated Bharatiya rule in Punjab a few years later. Kingdom established by Maharaja Ranjit Singh successfully resisted Afghans, Rohillas and out-manoevred new imperialist power of British successfully till he was alive. On his deathbed, Maharaja warned about impending British invasion. During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh Harmindar Saheb Gurudwara at Amritsar was renovated and gold-plated completely.

Now we move to south where Marathas were the first to cross Mughal invader Malik Kafur’s path in C.E. 1314. They were then led by the last scion of Yadava dynasty, Ramdev Rai Yadava who ruled from Devagiri i.e. Daulatabad. In their first battle with Muslims, Marathas lost to invaders, accepted the status of being vassals and mercenaries for their tyrannical Muslim masters. Shivaji’s mother Jijabai was a direct descendant of Yadav dynasty of Devagiri. She nursed deep in her mind burning desire of reclaiming freedom from Mughal rule which her Yadav forebears lost in 1318. As a child, he used to play games in which he used to attack and capture forts held by the enemy alongwith his friends. He was just 17 when he decided to enact what were till then his childhood games. Encouraged by Jijabai and his Guru Dadaji Kondse, he swore to free the country from Mughal tyranny in 1645 in a small Shiva temple. It was beginning of a long and arduous Maratha-Mughal battle that continued into next century culminating in defeat of Mughals and emergence of Marathas as the dominant power till British occupiers entered the scene.

When Shivaji captured Torana fort, the victory shocked Adil Shah at Bijapur as here was a Hindu chieftain daring to challenge might of a Muslim occupier. Adil Shah sent most fearsome general, Afzal Khan to capture Shivaji dead or alive. Afzal Khan was more than six feet tall with a massive body, destroyed Hindu temples at Tuljapur, Pandharpur and Shikhar Shinganapur in order to lure Shivaji into plains. The strategy failed and Shivaji stuck to Sahyadri hills. Shivaji even sent a letter to Afzal Khan praising his strength and well-known fearlessness. Shivaji even addressed him as his uncle and mentioned, he feared Afzal Khan, requested him to come into hills to meet him with not more than few select soldiers. Proud Khan believed, Deccan-Ka-Chuha i.e. rat of Deccans as Muslims scornfully addressed Shivaji, had really lost courage. Shivaji’s ensnaring and slaying of Afzal Khan established, Hindus had finally come of age in reciprocating Mughals in their tricks of subterfuge. Khan’s army waiting in the valley, was ruthlessly massacred by Marathas hiding in every crevice in densely wooded jungles around the fort. At the place where the encounter took place on 10th November 1659, there stands today a grave erected by Shivaji for the slain Khan to rest in peace. Once again, a Hindu warriar outwitted a Mughal twice as strong and a towering giant. Pigeons of Muslim subterfuge had come home to roost and with a vengeance now. Shivaji’s assault on Afzal was a pre-planned one invoking Mughal practice of slaying enemies even if there is no provocation. On hearing Shivaji’s depredations, Aurangzeb was furious and desperate to crush him. He sent mighty Shaista Khan with a massive army to kill Shivaji. Shaista Khan raided Maharashtra devastating towns, villages, agro-fields, temples, forts and everything that came on his way. One night, Shivaji sneaked into his palace alongwith his soldiers and attacked Khan in his bedroom. The Mughal lost his fingers in the fight, was spared on very emotional pleadings of his wife. Shaista Khan later chased Shivaji yet could not capture him, returned to Delhi without his fingers in April 1663. Unfortunately, not many Hindu Kings followed those sparks of bravery rendered by Shivaji and consequences are here for everyone to be seen in the country even today.

Marathas after Shivaji managed to reach Delhi in 1720 and by 1756 they occupied entire Punjab to reach outskirts of Afghanistan. However, none of them could  match Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaja in bravery and dare-devilry. Marathas under their Prime Ministers called Peshwas opened negotiations with Mughals at Delhi, battled on their behalf against other Muslim invaders like Nadir Shah of Persia and Ahmed Khan Abdali of Afghanistan. It was disastrous as Maratha Hindus became tools in hands of Muslims and suffered many defeats with the most debilitating one being at Panipat in 1761. Where Marathas stopped, Sikhs took over and they carried the saffron flag of Bharata into Afghanistan and hoisted it at Kabul in 1820, city which Hindus lost in 980.

After liberating large tracts of the country from Muslim occupation, neither Marathas nor Sikhs followed the illustrious example of Spanish Reconquistadors of reconverting Muslims to their original faith, Hinduism in this context. It was only because three alternatives of re-embracing Christianity, leaving Spain or facing death offered by Reconquistadors to defeated Spanish Moriscos (Moors or Muslims), that Spain regained their original Christian character. Very unfortunately, Marathas accepted Mughal customs, their attires, habits except converting to their religion. That is how Marathas failed to consolidate their military victories while Spanish Reconquistadors succeeded. For all their valour and expertise on battlefield, Marathas could not visualise devious nature of the Muslim threat.

But for the fierce Hindu reprisals that helped Hinduism to survive in the country and prevented complete Islamisation of Bharata !!!

 

Published @ http://patriotsforum.org/hindu-s-had-fiercely-battled-islamic-invasions/#comment-178615

@ http://www.makingindia.co/online-news-english/2017/02/14/hindu-s-fiercely-battled-islamic-invasions/

 

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ISLAM / MUGHAL-OCCUPIERS CONTRIBUTED NOTHING ORIGINAL TO BHARATAVARSA

It took 500 years for establishment of Muslim rule i.e. 712-1206 and 150 for its decline into oblivion i.e. 1707-1857. Turning points of Mughal occupation are C.E. 712 when Muhammad bin Qasim invaded Sind, C.E. 1000 when Mahmud of Ghazni embarked upon a serial invasions on Bharata, C.E. 1192-1206 when Prithviraj Chauhan lost to Muhammad Ghauri and Qutbuddin Aibak raised Turki Sultanate at Delhi and C.E. 1296 when Alauddin Khalji pushed into the Deccans. Stages of their downfall are C.E. 1707 when Aurangzeb died, C.E. 1739 when a trembling Mughal Occupier stood as a supplicant before Persian invader Nadir Shah, C.E. 1803 when Delhi was captured by British occupiers and C.E. 1858 when the last Mughal Occupier was expelled to Rangoon as a prisoner of British occupier. Islam believes in dividing humanity into believers and Kafirs, Muslim community i.e.Ummah is enjoined upon not to cooperate on the basis of equality or peaceful coexistence with Kafirs. Islam offers some alternatives like conversion to Islam, slavery or death. At best, Islam allows survival on payment of Jiziyah and acceptance of inferior status in society, that of Zimmi. As a matter of fact, Muslims invaded Bharata  to turn it into an Islamic country and implant their culture, essentially a carrier culture borrowed from exotic streams. Islam has only Koran and Hadis in the name of culture. They invaded not to co-exist but to wipe out Hindu  culture. Their proclaimed objective was Islamization of Bharata  through Jihad. However, in spite of repeated invasions and centuries of Muslim occupation, Bharata  could not be turned into a Muslim country. Had Bharata  been completely converted to Islam, we all would have been proud of organising Islamic revolutions, spearheading pan-Islamic movements and espousing despotic Islamic causes like Iranians / Libyans !!

An entirely irrational myth has been propagated that Mughal occupiers exerted a scintillating role in development of Bharatavarsa. Let us resolve the contentious issue of Islamic contributions to Bharatavarsa  and Hindu  society at large. We are poised to scrutinise a few disciplines of endeavour, the prominent ones that will demystify the issue forever.

Educational Institutions

Before invasion of Islam on Bharatiya  soil, Bharata  had as many as 20 large universities and some of them were of international stature. Prominent ones were Taksila, Nalanda, Sarada Pitha-s at Varanasi, Kanchipurama, Valabhi, Vikramsila, Jagaddala, Lalitgiri, Phuphagiri, Udayagiri, Odantapuri, Ratnagiri  etc., where student from all over the world came to study Mathematics, Algebra, Astronomy Physics, Alchemy, Medicine, Anatomy, Surgery, Literature etc. As Muslim invaders progressed towards east, these Universities were extinguished by burning down one by one beginning with the largest and oldest Taksila, to the brutal destruction and burning of Nalanda  by Bhaktiyar Khilji in 1193 AD. None of these monstrous invaders from Bin Qasim to Kutub-udin-Aibak to Babur to Aurangzeb to Nadir Shah, ever instituted even a single new University or center of learning. We challenge apologists of Islam to cite even a single instance when an educational institution of repute was raised from ground zero brick by brick.

Irrigation & Agriculture

Irrigation projects and canal building were undertaken by Hindu  Kings all over Bharata. Kingdoms constructed water tanks for irrigation, infrastructure to harvest rain water, some of which are still in use today for farming. Farmers had perfected the art of irrigation using Phada  i.e. river water diverted into fields and Badha  i.e. overflowing river, tank or lake breached to irrigate fields besides other mechanical methods still used today. Intellectually stunted Islamic apologists derive great pleasure in berating Vijaynagar empire, their achievements and rejoice in their destruction by resorting to an absurd decadence theory. Vijaynagar was one of the first welfare states in the world if not the only one. Kingdom paid from treasury for entire empire-wide water works to ensure running water for their subjects. Even today, remnants of aqueducts / network may be examined in southern Bharata  of that era. Kings of Vijaynagar, particularly Krishnadeva Raya, personally engineered and supervised construction of a damn across Tungabhadra, still used even now. In cities like Bhopal, huge natural lakes were maintained by Hindu  Kings for fish farming and irrigation for farmers which were drained by Mughal’s to play polo. Mughals did not construct even a single such project during their entire period of occupation of Bharata.

Taxation & Revenue Collection

It is a blatant lie propagated by ‘Eminent Marxist Historians’ to allude revenue and taxation system to Mughal despots particularly Akbar. System of revenue collection and taxation existed since time immemorial instituted by Hindu  Kings based on Hindu  scriptures and Kautilya’s Arthasastra  which Delhi Sultanate, followed by Mughals institutionalized to brutally oppress Hindu-s. It is unimaginable, barbarian tribal warlords roaming around Central Asian deserts had any knowledge of taxation and revenue collection that they could implant in other countries, least of all Bharata, a highly advanced civilization.

Health Care

Fa-Hian wrote in 400 AD about Magadha empire, a well-organized health-care system existed in Bharata

Nobles and householders of this country had founded hospitals within the city to which the poor of all countries, destitute, crippled and diseased may repair. They receive every kind of requisite help. Physicians inspect their diseases and according to their cases, order them food and drink, medicines or decoctions, everything in fact that contributes to their ease. When cured they depart at their ease.

Fa Hian’s account coupled with Maharsi Caraka’s treatise on medicine and hospitals, reveal that Bharata  was the first country to institutionalize public health care. During Mauryana rule, Emperor Asoka  in 300 BC had institutionalized hospitals, established veterinary clinics in towns and villages as well as on busy highways. Marathas had built series of  Chatramas as rest and recovery places for travellers and pilgrims.

Chatrams were not mere boarding places. They provided food, health facilities and space for animals that accompanied travellers. It took one day travel to arrive at a Chatram from another. Old resting places for travellers are found in other countries too, but what makes these Chatrams different from the caravan serais is that they cater to all kinds of travellers — not merely traders. In southerb Bharata, trade and pilgrim routes coexisted and inns served both pilgrims and travellers. Endowing pilgrims, pilgrimage was considered important and special care, facilities were provided. Most important pilgrimage route in southern Bharata  was the one that led to Rameshwarama. Along the route, 18 Chatrams were raised and patronized by Maratha Kings during 18th / 19th centuries. Most elaborate and ornate of them are Mukthambal Chatram at Orathanadu and Yamunambal Chatram at Needamangalam.

Chatrams were also built by Maratha ruler of Thanjavur, Maharaja Serfojee who wrote to British to continue the service –

Chatrams have Doctors, skillful in the cure of diseases, swellings and the poisonous bites of reptiles. Travellers who fall sick at Chatram or before arrival, receive medicines and proper diet for them and attended with respect and kindliness until their recovery’.

This letter of Sarfojee Maharaja has been complately reproduced in Annam Bahu Kurvita. The author also mentioned, he had not met any other people as generous as Hindu-s in Bharata. These institutionalized public health-care services were not stray, isolated acts of charity. It was entire knowledge of medical science that was transferred to Arabs during peacetime earlier, was brought back to Bharata  by Mughal invaders. Hence, Mughals did not contribute to health care facilities during their occupation of Bharatavarsa. They privileged themselves with it and destroyed it ultimately.

Arts & Culture

1000 year long presence of Islam in Bharata  from 713 AD to British occupation in 1857, Islam contributed NOTHING towards advancement of fine arts. Islam failed to introduce anything unique that did not already exist in Bharata. Dance and music was banned except in a few royal palaces or in brothels. Drama, dance and music were not encouraged under Mughal occupation and these continued to be patronised by Hindu  Kings, village and town folks. What Muslims practised was entirely a Hindu  heritage of classical music and they re-named  GuruSisya Parampara  as Gharana !! All great Muslim musicians were originally Hindu-s and they have continued with the tradition of singing an invocation to Devi Saraswati  or some other deity before commencement of every performance. Similarly, dance is as elaborate as music based on Hindu NatyaSastra. Sculptures of dancers and musicians carved on ancient and medieval temples, now mostly surviving in southern Bharata, bear testimony to their excellence, popularity and widespread practice. Mughal paintings were one-dimensional renderings of poor quality which failed to evolve after 10th century whilst Europe was mastering and perfecting painting in the same era. Silpakari  i.e. sculpting was banned so was temple construction. No literary works were authored except panegyrics of Mughal occupiers, Nawabs and Darbara chronicles. Urdu, an assortment of Khadiboli of northern plains, Persian and Turkish was implanted, Urdu couplets were composed. However, for Bharata  with their own vibrant, rich traditions of literature, languages, absence of Urdu wouldn’t have really mattered at all.

Medieval Monuments

Monuments of medieval period revive bitter memories in Hindu  psyche. All these have been Hindu  temples, demolished and vandalised to exist in the shape of Masjids, Idgahs, Dargahs, Ziarats, Sarais, Mazars, Madrasas and Maktabs. Throughout Muslim occupation, destruction of Hindu  shrines and construction of Masjids went on as a normal practice. From Quwwal-ul-Islam Masjid in Delhi raised out of 27 Hindu  and Jain  temples during 12th century to Taj-ul-Masjid raised from hundreds of Hindu  and Jain  temples at Bhopal during 18th century, story of destruction and plunder is same everywhere. Temples were broken not just during war but in times of peace too. Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq writes, “I destroyed their idol temples and instead thereof raised mosques where infidels and idolaters worshipped idols, Musalmans now, by Allah’s mercy, perform their devotion to the true God.” So said and did Sikandar Lodi, Shahjahan, Aurangzeb and Tipu Sultan. They destroyed temples because it is so enjoined upon them by their Koran.  They derive their justification and validity from Koranic revelation and Prophet’s Sunna.

Commerce & Economics

Bharata  has always been an agrarian trading economy. Trade within Bharata  as well as with other countries were highly developed and well organized since ancient times. Bharatiya  traders invented promissory note prevalent even today. So many Bharatiya  trading families settled in Arabian Peninsula, Damascus, Persia, Jerusalem, Rome, Alexandria, South East Asia and other trading hubs around the globe. Trade was carried out through sea and land routes across an extensive trade network. International trade can be traced back to SarasvatiIndu civilization and some of the oldest ports, dry docks have been unearthed. These are marvels of civil engineering of those centuries. Thus, even in this field Bharata  was not benefited at all by those Islamic conquerors / Mughal despots that might have value-enhanced had they knew it already. In reality, Islam exerted destructive impact on trade and businesses with their anti ‘usury’ dictate. All trading families in ancient Bharata  were Hindu’s with Muslims having no role to play at all. Islam had no impact on trade, nor did Islam open newer markets nor did Islam bring in new systems of commerce. Several Hindu  traders of Bengal were multiple times bigger than even East India Company and all their shareholders clubbed together.

Ancient Bharata  had been a highly successful civilization. Not a single Islamic conquest ever led to any value-addition at all as Islam and Mughal despots had NOTHING to offer except to loot and destroy what ancient glorious nation of Bharata  already possessed. Bharatiya  Muslims gloat over the dubious glory of  Mughal era without realising that it was foreign Mughal occupiers who had ruled over Bharata  and not Hindus-forcibly-converted-to-Islam !! These foreign invaders never ever considered Bharatiya  Muslims as Muslims at all and treated them as “Ajlaf”. In South Asia, Muslims are divided as Ashrafs and Ajlafs. Ashrafs claim superior status derived from their Mughal ancestry while non-Ashrafs are purported to be converts from Hinduism, therefore inferior. Turkish scholar Zaiuddin Barraniin declared in the court of Mohammad Tughlaq that “Sons of Mohammed” i.e. Ashrafs must be given a higher social status than the low-born Ajlaf. In addition to the Ashraf/Ajlaf divide, there is an Arzal caste among Muslims who were regarded as untouchables. The term “Arzal” stands for “degraded” who are also called Muslims with whom no other Muhammadan would associate, forbidden to enter mosques or use public burial grounds.

Muslim Fundamentalism, Communal Riots & Partition of Bharata

These are the only ORIGINAL gifts that Muslims / Mughals / Islam delivered to Bharatavarsa.

Policy of Muslim occupiers was to keep Muslim minority in a privileged position, ensure there was no integration between two communities. Muslim occupiers were so allergic to prosperity of Hindu-s that they expressed open resentment at Hindu-s being well-dressed, riding horses or travelling in palanquins. Many of them enforced regulations requiring Hindu-s to wear distinguishing marks on their clothes so that they were not be mistaken for Muslims. Laiqat Ali Khan demanded from the then British Viceroy Lord Wavell on Jan. 24, 1946 that British would have to stop for several more years and Muslims were not at all anxious that British occupiers go. Muslim leaders like Shah Waliullah, Wiqar-ul-Mulk and Liaqat Ali Khan preferred to live under the rule of foreigners like Afghans and British than to live as free people with Hindu-s just because latter happened to be in a majority. Is it therefore any wonder that majority of Muslims were not interested in joining the freedom struggle for Bharata’s freedom ? The idea of Pakistan was as old as the Muslim occupation of Bharata. M.A. Jinnah is reported to have said that seeds of Pakistan were planted when the first Hindu  was forcibly converted to Islam in Bharata. History of communal riots is synchronous with advent of Islam / Muslims in Bharata. For next hundreds of years, invaders and occupiers committed all sorts of atrocities on Hindu-s and country was charged with aggression and violence.

Ever since appearance of Muslims in Bharata, there has been a constant struggle between Islamic / Muslim communalism and Hindu  nationalism. Today on the side of Muslim communalists are Marxists, pseudo-secularists, so-called progressives etc. They have chosen the safe side because they know that it is easy to decry Hindu-s and Hinduism but life-threatening to criticise Muslims or Islam. Hindu-s are now regaining their self-respect diminished over centuries. Their tough no-nonsense stance has rendered secularists and progressives panicky. Now they have floated a new rubbish doctrine, majority fundamentalism affects entire nation while minority fundamentalism, only minorities !! Hindu  have trashed it with the contempt it deserves. Nationalism is the new buzzword for Hindu-s misconstrued by some, anti-Islam. India is on move now. It will neither go Communist nor communalist. India is steadily going Bharata. Let us observe with keen interest whether Indian Muslim or Muslim Indian leadership contribute to the historic movement or merely cherish and dream return of the brutal, despotic and detestable legacy of Muslim rule in Bharata.

With these stark and loud realities on board, it is easy to discern how half-baked historians concoct grand tales of Muslim rule, goading Bharatiya  Muslims revel in a dreamland of fake Mughal glory, thereby trampling their roots and realities. This ludicrous unification and identification with foreign invaders viz. Turks, Mughals and Afghan is the root cause of division and distrust between Hindu-s and Muslims. Bharatiya  Muslims are in reality, victims of those despotic foreign invaders and it is high time for Bharatiya  Muslims to assimilate these facts and stop being misled by people with anti-national agenda to boot.

 

Published @ http://patriotsforum.org/islam-mughal-occupiers-contributed-nothing-original-to-bharatavarsa/

 

@ http://www.makingindia.co/online-news-english/2017/01/13/history-islam-mughal-occupiers-contributed-nothing-original-bharatavarsa-part-1/

@ http://www.makingindia.co/online-news-english/2017/01/13/history-islam-mughal-occupiers-contributed-nothing-original-bharatavarsa-part-2/

@ http://www.makingindia.co/online-news-english/2017/01/13/history-islam-mughal-occupiers-contributed-nothing-original-bharatavarsa-part-3/

 

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SO IS “ELECTED” US PRESIDENT !!

Election of US President is not a direct one based on principles of One Voter / One Vote & Highest Vote Catcher Wins. It is indirect and a bit complex that sometimes not only confuses some but also raises controversies like the one George W. Bush Jr. encountered in the state of Florida in 2000. Common American citizens elect those who finally elect next occupant of the White House. Here is how it goes about for those interested in having a glimpse of the convoluted process.

It is the Electoral College having 538 members that elects President and Vice-President every four years. These 538 electors are apportioned across 50 states and the District of Columbia as under –

2 Senate members per state for 50 states make 100 Senators.

435 members in House of Representatives.

3 members from Distt. Of Columbia.

Electoral College members are known as Electors who directly elect President. They are not allowed to hold an office of profit to be eligible to vote / elect President. Every Party choses their own set of electors in every state. Electors are either nominated in Party conventions or elected by central party committee vote.

Modus Operandii of election is Winner-Takes-All route. For example, if out of 20 electors in the state of Illinois, Republican candidate wins 12 votes, he / she shall be awarded remaining 8 votes too. So in every state, majority vote catcher appropriates all electoral votes.

Presidential candidate who wins more than half of 538 Electoral College votes, dwells in the White House with a licence to rule over the country for next 4 years.

In case no candidate succeeds with a clear majority, House of Representatives is assembled to elect President. Similarly, House of Senate is assembled to elect Vice President.

Nationwide votes cast is known as Popular Vote. Since popular votes do not elect President, it is possible a candidate may win popular votes but lose the election. Similarly, winner may have received less popular votes than the loser. There have been four Presidential elections so far wherein winner did not receive majority of popular votes with fourth one being that of George Bush vs. Al Gore.

November 8 is the election date while January 20, inaugural of the tenure.

States and their respective number of electors are as under –

Alabama (AL) – 9, Alaska (AK) – 3, Arizona (AZ) – 10, Arkansas (AR) – 6, California (CA) – 55, Colorado (CO) – 9, Connecticut (CT) – 7, Delaware (DE) – 3, Florida (FL) – 27, Georgia (GA) – 15, Hawaii (HI) – 4, Idaho (ID) – 4, Illinois (IL) – 21, Indiana (IN) – 11, Iowa (IA) – 7, Kansas (KS) – 6, Kentucky (KY) – 8, Louisiana (LA) – 9, Maine (ME) – 4, Maryland (MD) – 10, Massachusetts (MA) – 12, Michigan (MI) – 17, Minnesota (MN) – 10, Mississippi (MI) – 6, Missouri (MO) – 11, Montana (MT) – 3, Nebraska (NE) – 5, Nevada (NV) – 5, New Hampshire (NH) – 4, New Jersey (NJ) – 15, New Mexico (NM) – 5, New York (NY) – 31, North Carolina (NC) – 15, North Dakota (ND) – 3, Ohio (OH) – 20, Oklahoma (OK) – 7, Oregon (OR) – 7, Pennsylvania (PA) – 21, Rhode Island (RI) – 4, South Carolina (SC) – 8, South Dakota (SD) – 3, Tennessee (TN) – 11, Texas (TX) – 34, Utah (UT) – 5, Vermont (VT) – 3, Virginia (VA) – 13, Washington (WA) – 11, West Virginia (WV) – 5, Wisconsin (WI) – 10, Wyoming (WY) – 3   

270 is the magic number of electoral college votes that the prospective winner is obligated to win. Tradition has it that losing candidate calls winner to concede defeat the moment winner is deemed to have earned the number for himself / herself.   

First President George Washington (1789-1797) was the only non-partisan one. Subsequent Presidents have been Federalists, Whigs and some Democratic-Republicans. American Whigs, active in mid-19th century, were opponents of President Andrew Jackson. One Free Soil Party too, existed from 1848 to 1854. 1870 onward, Presidents have been either Democrats or Republicans. 

The Republican Party  Also known as Grand Old Party (GOP) modified from Gallant Old Party, it was founded in 1854 by anti-slavery activists, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers. Elephant happens to be their mascot. Their political philosophy relates to conservatism, free market capitalism, free business, strong defence forces, deregulation, restrictions on labour movement, opposition to abortion, homosexuality, same sex marriage etc. Extreme right-wingers started Tea Party movement within Republicans that stoked voices against illegal aliens, free-loaders and demanded tighter immigration checks. First Republican President happened to be Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865) and the most recent one, George W. Bush (2001-2009). President Lincoln is immortalized in US history by his anti-slavery proclamations while George Bush, for his anti-Taliban military moves as well as invasion of Iraq hunting for weapons of mass destruction that turned out to be Fiasco Of The Century.

The Democratic Party  Founded in 1828, they claim to be the “oldest active party” in the world. The Party owes their roots in Democratic-Republican Party that delivered Thomas Jefferson in 1801 and James Madison in 1809 as Presidents. Democratic Party was the official name in 1844 only. As President Andrew Jackson used to be ridiculed by his opponents by being called a ‘Jackass’, Democrats adopted jackass i.e. donkey as their official mascot. Presidents Woodrow Wilson amended US Constitution to grant women right to vote, Franklin Roosevelt ensured augmented social welfare programs for distressed ones, John Kennedy decided to land on the moon by 1970, Lyndon Johnson legislated civil rights, voting rights and banned racial segregation in all places.

In addition to these, Libertarian Party founded in 1971 with porcupine as their mascot and Green Party founded in 2001, do exist though they have not been able to register any impact so far on American politics.

US elections are held in November as decided by US Congress in 1845 on a standardized voting day based on availability, convenience of US farmers after harvesting and mild weather. Tuesday was the day finalized for voting so that farmers are free to attend Church on Sundays, then start journey to nearest poll station on Mondays. Now 34 states allow no-excuse early voting, 6 states allow excuse only voting while 7 allow none of these. Washington, Oregon and Colorado have only mail-in-voting.

US votes across 6 time-zones with no EVMs like in Bharata, no election commission and every state counts and declares their own result. After the last voter has cast vote, election judge at each polling station ensures, ballot boxes are sealed and dispatched to central vote counting facility. At the facility, certified observers representing parties / candidates watch actual process of counting to ensure fair game of election. Paper ballots are officially read out before being counted while punch card ballots are first counted then read out by a punch card reader.

Venue for victory party is decided in advance. For Election 2016, New York Hilton Midtown has been selected by the Republican Donald Trump while Jacob Javits Convention Centre in New York by Democrat Hillary Clinton.   

Election 2016 has been contested on under-mentioned issues –

Employment  Jobs have been declining and incomes going down for the past several years.

Racial Policing  Several cases of deaths of unarmed African-Americans at the hands of armed Police has been a sore point and agitation in America.

Abortion  Freedom to abort so-called unwanted pregnancy is now a bone of attrition in American society.

Climate Deterioration  Global warming is an issue inviting wide range of views and comments.

China  They have been unduly aggressive in South China Sea, unfair trade practices and cyber crimes.

Syrian Refugees  Fleeing Muslim refugees from Syria have become a headache for US Government.

Supreme Court   SC Judges have been adopting political positions in their judgements with the Court split between 4 Republican and Democrat Justices each.

Foreign Policy  Whether ‘International Partnership’ or ‘America First’ would enjoy supremacy, is yet to be finally settled and seen.

Gun Culture  Unrestricted liberty to possess arms vs. calibrated freedom of gun ownership is going to be a knotty issue before next incumbent of the White House.

Healthcare  Universal healthcare law shall stay but Obamacare may not depending upon who wins. It may be replaced by another health protocol by the incoming President.

There have been occasions when election results were not accepted initially by the loser. Abraham Lincoln’s victory in 1860 acted as an immediate impetus for his three losers to declare secession which led to civil war, then defeat of those Confederates.

Democrat John Kennedy won over Richard Nixon by a slender margin of just 0.2% votes in 1960. Nixon however, turned down President DD Eisenhower’s appeal to contest the result.  

In 2000, Al Gore lost to George Bush in Florida just by a few hundred votes. Finally Supreme Court intervened and Bush was declared winner.

In 2004, John Kerry did not challenge the winner George Bush in spite of several concerns being raised. However, Libertarian Party and Green Party obtained a recount order in the state of Ohio. It did not affect final outcome.   

Entire process is deficient in transparency and clarity inviting comments like US President is nominated, not elected. Had it not been to their political maturity and sagacity, every election would have led to an avalanche of litigation. Elections are worthwhile and meaningful only with principles of ONE VOTER-ONE VOTE and MAJORITY WINS as in Bharata  conducted by an autonomous election commission. Let us hope, USA shall realise that one day and switch over to the Bharatiya  system of elections.   

 

Published @ http://patriotsforum.org/%e0%a4%b9%e0%a4%bf%e0%a4%b2%e0%a4%b0%e0%a5%80-%e0%a4%95%e0%a5%8d%e0%a4%b2%e0%a4%bf%e0%a4%82%e0%a4%9f%e0%a4%a8-%e0%a4%9f%e0%a5%8d%e0%a4%b0%e0%a4%ae%e0%a5%8d%e0%a4%aa-%e0%a4%b8%e0%a5%87-%e0%a4%85/#

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RAMA, RAMA-RAJYA AND RAMAYANA

When Maharsi Valmiki  decided to author a historical epic to inspire everyone follow moral uprighteousness, he was advised by Muni Narada  to write about Sri Rama, greatest monarch, son of King Dasratha, born in Raghu  clan. Maharsi Valmiki  was now prompted by narration of entire Rama’s theme assuring Adhyatmika  advancement, prosperity for others and ultimate emancipation, to explore Rama’s life-narration himself directly. Sanctifying himself with Acamana  as prescribed in Sruti, having seated himself on KusaAsana  with his palms clubbed together towards east, Maharsi  wished to perceive all events of Rama  by the dint of his Adhyatmika  faculty. By virtue of those extra-ordinary faculties, Maharsi Valmiki  perceived directly all that pertaining to Rama, Laksamana, Sita, King Dasaratha  and his wives, the Kingdom, how they laughed, expressed themselves and whatever else they did. Further he perceived directly, all that was accomplished by Rama  during His wanderings in jungles accompanied by Laksamana  and Sita, true to His commitment.

Rama’s birth, His infinite prowess, compassion towards all, universal acceptability, forgiveness, truthfulness, being endeared to all, several other mystical events and episodes mentioned by Visvamitra  while journeying with him to wedding of Janaka’s daughter, His splitting the bow into two, wedding of Sita  and others, Rama’s dispute with Parasurama, vivid description of virtuous attributes of Dasaratha’s son, Rama’s crowning ceremony, malevolence of Kaikeyi, His crowning being stalled, Rama’s exile, King immensely grieving to his demise, grieving masses and their following Rama  to jungle then persuaded to return, His conversation with Chief of Nisada-s and how His charioteer was sent back; how Nisada  ferried Rama  across Ganga, His meeting Maharsi Bharadwaja, then visiting Citrakuta  on Maharsi’s directive, His raising a straw-hut there to dwell in, arrival of Bharata  and how persuasively Bharata  beseeched Rama  to return to Ayodhya, how Rama offered Tarpana  to His deceased father, how Bharata  returned to Ayodhya, installed Rama’s Khadaun  as regent on the throne and his retreating to Nandigrama  to stay there;

Rama’s departure to the jungle at Dandaka  and slaying Raksasa Viradha, His visit to Sarabhanga  and Sutiksna, Sita’s visit to Anusuya  and being gifted sandal-paste etc., Rama  visiting Maharsi Agastya  and worshipping him, Maharsi Agastya  blessing Rama  with a bow, lustful overtures of Surpanakha  and her being facially mutilated by Laksamana, slaying of Raksasa-s like Khara, Trisira  and others, Ravana’s  effort to capture Sita, Rama  slaying Marica  and Ravana  forcibly abducting Sita  through a subterfuge, tormented Rama  agonising over Jatayu’s demise, sight of Kabandha Raksasa  and Pampa  lake, visiting Sabari  in her hermitage and partaking fruits and roots offered by her; Rama  rueing in grief and meeting Hanumana  on banks of Pampa  lake, Rama’s arrival at Rsyamuka  Hills and meeting Sugriva, Rama  assured Sugriva  of His friendship and inspired his confidence in Him, combat between Sugriva  and Vali  at the instance of Sugriva, Vali  being killed in the combat and Sugriva  crowned as King of Kiskindha, wailing of Vali’s widow Tara, Sugriva’s assurance to Rama  and His visit after rains, Raghu-Lion Rama’s indignation then Sugriva’s ordering Vanara-s in all directions and vivid description of terrain to them by Sugriva, Rama’s parting with His finger-ring, how Vanara-s encountered a bear’s cave where they sat down dejected and their meeting Sampati;

Hanumana  crossed over the ocean by leaping from Mahendra  hills after ascending over that, how Hanumana  beheld and conversed with Mainaka  who had emerged at the instance of SamudraDeva, how Raksasi-s Surasa  and Lankini  attempted to terrorise Hanumana, how Hanumana  observed Raksasi Simhika  capable of capturing birds flying in sky with their shadow on ground and slew her, then Hanumana  glanced at Trikuta  mountain range with Lanka  perched on that, how He stealthily entered into Lanka  at dusk to avoid being detected, Hanumana  reflecting upon Himself, His visit to ale-house and having a glimpse of gynaecium, how Hanumana  had a deep and close look at Ravana  as well as his aero-car Puspaka, how then Hanumana  entered Asokavana  and had a close view of Sita, Hanumana  gave Rama’s finger-ring to her to prove His identity and His talks with Her, Sita  being constantly terrorised by Raksasi-s around Her and how Trijata  dreamed of auspicious developments, Sita  handed over to Hanumana  her own ornament, how trees of Asokavana  were uprooted and destroyed by Him, Raksasi-s guarding Sita  scampered away in fear as Hanumana  killed all attendants, how Hanumana  hesitated a bit before setting Lanka  on blaze before He leapt over the ocean again to cross-over, forcibly snatching the honey excitedly, how Hanumana  pacified Rama  to solace by narrating all events sequentially before handing over Sita’s ornament to Him to convince Him about His experiences; Rama now moved towards Lanka  leading His VanaraSena, met SamudraDeva  and a bridge was constructed to facilitate crossing over the ocean led by Vanara-Chief Nala, Rama’s army crossed over the ocean at dusk and besieged Lanka, His meeting Vibhisana  and how Vibhisana  briefed Rama  how to slay Ravana  and others, slaying of Kumbhakarna  and Meghnada, finally slaying of Ravana  and recovery of Sita  in the town, crowning of Vibhisana  as Lanka-King, Rama  observed Puspaka  and boarded that for Ayodhya, His meeting Maharsi Bharadwaja  on the way, how Hanumana  moved ahead in advance and His meeting Bharata, Rama’s coronation as Ayodhya-King being a grand regal ceremony and entire combat force was disbanded and returned home.

The great epic famous as ‘Ramayana’ has it’s roots vested in the lineage of highly accomplished monarchs descending from Ikswaku, as is widely known.

Great Kingdom of Kosala  is situated on the bank of Sarayu  river. It is a wealthy state, prosperous with plenty of foodgrains. World famous city of Ayodhya  stood within the Kingdom, raised by Vaivaswata Manu, head of entire humanity. The fabulous town with a very well-defined and laid out network of roads is twelve Yojana-s long and three Yojana-s wide. Adorned with widespread intelligently ramified highways, sprinkled daily with water and showered with heavenly flowers, it appeared like a celestial town. King Dasaratha  nurtured his great Kingdom to a glorious apogee like the celestial abode by Deva-s in heaven. Arched gateways with well-carved huge doors, well-organised markets, equipped with all sorts of tools and weapons, town if gifted with craftsmen of every order. Splendour of prosperity, gifted with bards and panegyrists, Ayodhya  is distinguished by scores of flags, canopies and Sataghni-s i.e. cylindrical wooden projectiles studded with hundred pointed iron spikes. Colourfully attired women dance troupes, mango groves and orchards adorned the town defended by a boundary wall on all sides. It is not comfortably accessible or approachable owing to the deep, inhospitable moat surrounding it on all sides. The town is dotted with numerous horses, elephants, cows, camels and mules. City is continuously teeming with royal princes arriving from all directions to extend their humble submissions so also merchants and traders from various countries. Lofty mansions studded with precious stones and prominent attics dotting Ayodhya  skyline, it appeared like Indra’s abode of Amaravati. Appearing like a dice-board, brightly multi-coloured, teeming with a bevy of beautiful women, rich with all varieties of gems, it is adorned with buildings rising very high in sky. Perfectly designed and raised on a levelled ground with densely populated by houses, it is rich in rice and water as sweet as sugar-cane sap. Incomparable with any other on earth, it is resonating continuously with symphony of musical instruments viz. drums, lutes, kettle-drums etc. With houses neatly arranged in rows, appeared like rows of aero-cars belonging to Siddha Deva-s dwelling in heaven attained after intense Tapa  and Sadhana, were inhabited by highly accomplished men. Inhabited by scores of Maharathi-s who do not target an individual warrior, devoid of father or son, well-versed to strike at invisible targets or a fleeing foe following sound, highly skilled archers expert in using all arms, could kill lion, tigers and boars with projectiles or even completely unarmed with bare hands. King Dasaratha  re-populated it with well-gifted Brahmana-s conversant with Veda-s and related scriptures, worshipping sacred Agni, highly accomplished like Maharsi-s devoted to truth alone.

King Dasaratha, a brilliant visionary and an erudite Vedic  scholar himself, renowned for his outstanding collections, was adored by his subjects in the town and in outskirts, protected them well in his monarchy. He was an Atirathi  i.e. capable of combating substantial number of Maharathi-s alone, of the highest order from Ikswaku  dynasty. Sagacious, virtuous with all his senses of perception in his complete dominance, he possessed a pronounced inclination to perform Yajna. A royal monarch as accomplished as a Maharsi, he enjoyed excellent renown in all the three worlds. Blessed with enormous prowess with senses under restraint, bereft of adversaries, he had several allies and belonged to the order of Indra  and Kubera  when it came to wealth-retention. Just as highly accomplished Manu  guarded the whole world, so did King Dasaratha  as monarch of Ayodhya. Committed to truth and integrity, earnestly engaged in pursuits on all three fronts, nurtured the city as did Indra  for Amaravati.

Joyous, virtuous and truthful denizens of Ayodhya, well-versed in Sruti, were devoid of covetousness and supremely contented with whatever they had. No Grihastha  in the great town of Ayodhya  underwent deprivation of any sort, aplenty with valuables, cattle like horses, wealth and foodgrains. None in Ayodhya  happened to be lascivious, parsimonious, despotic, ignorant or cynical. Every citizen in Ayodhya  belonged to the order of Maharsi-s, virtuous, self-restrained, joyous and gifted with impeccable character. Not one person was there who did not sport ear-rings, diadem, garlands of flowers or bereft of means of entertainment, who did not embellish personal appearance after bathing every day applying sandal-paste, unguents and perfumes. None in Ayodhya  accepted impure food, possessed unrestrained mind, declined alms or bereft of ornamented wrist, arms or neck. No one in Ayodhya  declined consecrated Agni  to perform Yajna  every day or devoid of moral rectitude being perverted with thievery or dubious origins. Brahmana-s incessantly wedded to their SvaDharma  and Svadhyaya  with perfect restraint over their sense-organs, liberally extended alms while declining gifts. No Dvija  in Ayodhya  was atheist pedalling lies, devoid of knowledge of Sruti, carping about others, pauperised or unwise. None in the town was bereft of knowledge of Siksa  i.e. phonetics, Vyakarana  i.e. grammar, Chhanda-s i.e. prosody, Nirukta  i.e. etymology, Jyotisa  i.e. astronomy  and Kalpa  i.e. study of rituals, all auxiliary studies pertaining to Veda-s. None in the town reneged on vows or dishonoured commitments already rendered. Ayodhya  had none donating scantily or a miserably agonised one to deserve that as well as those possessing a discursive, tormented mind. There was no man or woman there devoid of pleasing countenance or aristocratic splendour or even disloyal to the King. Inhabitants belonged to four Varna-s of society ardently pursuing their respective SvaDharma, imbued with a sense of gratitude, generous and strong, also adoring Deva-s and Atithi-s. All virtuous and noble citizens enjoyed longer life-span, stayed together with their wives, sons and grandsons. Ksatriya-s followed Brahmana-s, Vaisya-s followed Ksatriya-s while Sudra-s gladly served other three Varna-s with great aplomb.

King Dasaratha  as supreme repository of Ikswaku, protected the Kingdom in all directions. City was teeming with warrior archers like a cave bristling with lions, brimming with enthusiasm, devoid of subterfuge yet refusing to be humiliated. It was teeming with thoroughbred horses hailing from Kamboja, Bahlika, Vanayu, river-horses and those matching Indra’s horses. Similarly, elephants in large numbers from Vindhya  and Himalaya, humongous and mighty as mountains, dwelt there. Elephants belonging to races of Airavata, Mahapadma, Anjana, Vamana, Bhadra, Mandra, Mrga  and cross-breeds viz. BhadraMandraMrgas, BhadraMandra, BhadraMrga  and MrgaMandra. King Dasaratha  resided in Ayodhya  i.e. inconquerable, true to it’s name particularly within the width of two Yojana-s and protected entire world. King Dasaratha  blessed with the glory of decimating all his foes, ruled over just as moon dominates all stars and stellar regions in sky. The Monarch matching even highly accomplished celestial King Indra, governed the blessed city of Ayodhya, so very accurately named Ayodhya, protected by gigantic gates and bars, replete with variously designed houses all over, teeming with masses. King Dasaratha  ruled over entire world as he was amply assisted and supported by competent ministers as described before, Maharsi-s and advisers endowed with impeccable integrity. Enthroned in Ayodhya, he governed entire earth scrutinising every event and development through eyes of his spies, guarding his subject through righteous means alone, honest to his commitments, famous all over the world, sustaining his subjects very well, lion among men was generous to the core. Privileged with large number of allies, he had no foe who could excel him in warfare skills and prowess. Kings all around Ayodhya  bowed unto him and his enemies eliminated by his aura and glory. Just as Indra  ruled over the celestial world, he governed entire physical world. Just as rising sun shines bright through the blitz of rays, King ruled over the world assisted by wise, loyal, deliberative ministers and advisers, steadfastly dedicated to the Kingdom.

Ministers devoted to the extra-ordinarily noble King, descendant of Ikswaku  dynasty, were well-versed in evaluating all dimensions of every issue including the faculty to perceive thoughts arising in other’s mind. They were all endowed with attributes facilitative to their ministerial responsibilities. Dhrsti, Jayanta, Vijaya, Surastra, Rastravardhana, Akopa, Dharmapala, Arthavit  and Sumantra, eight were ministers to the highly accomplished King, hallowed in mind and virtuous in deportation, dedicated to affairs of the Kingdom. Maharsi-s Vasistha  and Vamadeva  were the legendary Guru-s who guided and enlightened the royal family. In addition to these two Maharsi-s, other Guru-s were Suyajna, Jabali, Kasyapa, Gautama, long living Markandeya  and the Dvija, Katyayana  who mentored them. Along with these Brahmarsi-s, there were Seers who conducted rituals for them, an intellectual legacy inherited from their respective families.

Ministers were erudite with humility, modest, serene and shrewd, all faculties of cognition restrained to intellect, wealthy, noble, skilled warriors of all weapons, blessed with enormous prowess, glorious, committed to truth, compassionate, famous with majestic demeanour. Never lying even in anger or for the motive of carnal pleasure and acquisition, they were ever cheerful sporting a smile on their countenances. With an effective network of spies in the town, they always possessed full knowledge of all developments and events linked with the populace that occurred in Kingdom. All ministers were shrewd and diplomatic while dealing with others, successfully scrutinised for their loyalty who never favoured even their own sons when in confrontation with laws for lesser punishment. Always striving to augment Kingdom’s revenue, strengthening forces albeit never persecuted anyone discovered innocent. Great persons with interminable enthusiasm religiously pursuing fair and just governance, always protected good citizens who never defied laws of the Kingdom. For the prosperity of subjects, they augmented Kingdom’s treasury without tormenting Brahmana-s or Ksatriya-s and imposed punitive punishment magnitude of which was decided after considering all related factors. With ministers of unimpeachable integrity and intellect, none lied in the town or Kingdom with no evil one or anyone indulging in promiscuity. Entire town was perfectly in order with people rejoicing all over. Always profoundly conscious, well poised and prudent, finely attired and ornamented, had the only purpose to serve the King, resolute and sacrosanct. Royal Guru-s treated them well owing to their virtues and bravery, they enjoyed recognition in other Kingdoms owing to their enormous intellect. Well-read, infused with noble traits and divine faculties, they very well understood niceties of war and peace. Secretive by disposition whenever required, kind-spoken and profoundly analytical while contemplating, they possessed comprehensive knowledge of Niti Sastra.

Ajanubahu Sri Rama  stood 7 feet tall and happened to be a gorgeous / fabulous persona. He happened to be an Avatara  of Visnu. His name Rama  was prevalent even before incarnation of Ramaरम्रमयते (RamaRamayate) means state of being engrossed in Ananda  i.e. Bliss. Ramyate  is the origin of the name ‘Rama’ and Rama  is the one who is ever immersed in Ananda  and impels others to immerse in it. Ra  means rays of enlightenment which together with Rama, constitutes definition of complete and absolute existence. Also known as RamacandraRama’s original name is only ‘Rama’. He belonged to Surya  dynasty, born at 12 noon. As a child,  He once obstinately cried for the moon and that begot Him the name Ramacandra. Rama  was ever in perfect command of His entire existence including all subtle inner variables; wise and sagacious; physically well-sculptured with His long arms arriving at His knees and resplendent complexion; mighty with bow and quiver full of arrows; highly accomplished intellectually and conversant with Vedic  knowledge; longingly cherished by the noble and righteous ones; endowed with Himalayan resoluteness, strength of Visnu, forbearance of Prthvi  and wealth of Kubera. As Rama  is a perfect being, He is aptly famous as Maryada Purusottama.

Sri Rama  ‘Sri’ is one of the virtues of Isvara  viz. success, energy, beauty, virtues, generosity, detachment, knowledge and opulence. When Rama  returned victorious to Ayodhya  with Sita  after slaying Ravana  and conquering Lanka  revealing that He was indeed Isvara  incarnate, He was called Sri Rama  by residents of Ayodhya. In Valmiki Ramayana, Rama  is referred to as Narapungava  i.e. Supreme Man and not as Isvara. Similarly, Hanumana  is referred to as Kapipungava  i.e. Supreme Vanara. When Isvara  incarnates, other deities too incarnate alongwith Him. So when Sri Visnu  incarnated as Sri Rama, other deities that incarnated alongwith Him are as under –

 

Sri Rama  and His family Whose Incarnation ?
Srirama Sri Visnu
Sita Sakti  of Sri Visnu
Laksmana Adisesa
Bharata Conch
Satrughna Discus
Hanumana Eleventh Rudra  of Siva
   
 

Sri Rama  was a multifaceted personality. There are so many aspects in Him to be explored in detail albeit herein, brief mentioned.

Sri Rama  as ideal son : Though Sri Rama  obeyed His parents, He also preached His elders. While departing for forest, He told His parents not to grieve for Him. After He returned completing 14 years in exile, He offered obeisance to Ma Kaikeyi, the very instigator of His exile and spoke to her adoringly as before.

Sri Rama  as ideal brother : Mutual love of Sri Rama  and Laksmana  is an ideal illustration of fratricidal love.

Sri Rama  as ideal husband : Sri Rama  had only one wife Sita  and He was entirely devoted to Her. Even after abandoning her under public indictment, Sri Rama  lived as an ascetic. While performing Yajna, He placed Her idol beside Him. He never thought about another wife despite that being a prevalent practice during those days.

Sri Rama  as ideal friend : Sri Rama  helped Sugriva, Vibhisana  etc. during their tumultuous days.

Sri Rama  as an ideal King : He ruled over His Kingdom as a measure of GuruSeva  i.e. service unto the Guru  as He offered entire Kingdom unto the holy feet of His Guru Vasistha. He believed, only Brahmana-s are entitled to rule over the earth surrounded by oceans. Thereafter, Sri Rama  ruled over His kingdom for 11,000 years on behalf of His Guru. That was precisely the reason why His rule became famous as Ram-Rajya, extremely prosperous resembling Satyayuga. He was very prompt in following RajaDharma  that anointed Him as an ideal monarch.

Sri Rama  as an ideal enemy : When Vibhisana  refused to perform last rites of his slain elder brother Ravana, Sri Rama  told him, “Enmity ceases with death. If you do not perform his last rites, I will. He is my brother too”.

He adhered to all norms of Dharma  and He was adored as Maryada Purusottama. He taught Dharma  too, to His subjects. Following His teachings, connection between Nivrattimargi-s i.e. those who ceased to participate in worldly affairs and Pravrattimargi-s i.e. those still active in worldly life, was never severed and it led to bliss for every person. He was complete incarnation of Dharma, rather Dharma  itself in His human manifest. Thus, Ramarajya  is regarded as ideal way of governance till date.

Sri Rama  was always true to His word. Once He uttered something, it was the Truth and there was no need for verification. No one ever asked Sri Rama, “Is this true ?”

Sri Rama  could strike any target with a single arrow in first attempt itself. He was the greatest marksman ever known.

Sri Rama  was generous to the core. When Sugriva  asked Sri Rama, “When Vibhisana  surrendered, you gifted the Kingdom of Lanka  to him. What will you do if Ravana  too surrenders ?” Sri Rama  replied, “I will gift him Ayodhya, then proceed to live in jungles alongwith my brothers.” He was ever Sthitiprajna  i.e. equanimous which revealed His highest order of spiritual advancement. Neither His coronation nor banishment to jungles ever perturbed Him a bit. However, He displayed emotions like human beings as He had assumed incarnation in human form albeit superficially. That established His greatness beyond any iota of doubt.

Rama-Rajya  refers to spiritual advancement of a very high order. Due to Sri Rama’s influence, every citizen of Ayodhya  was entirely Sattvika  like Him. It was literally a spell of Satyayuga  in His era and that led to complete absence of conflict, pain, agony throughout the Kingdom of Ayodhya. Thus, it was the influence of His being Sattvika  that transformed everyone in Ayodhya  into being Sattvika  that led to the legend of RamaRajyaRama Rajya  had it’s roots in the rule of King Dasaratha. Inhabitants of Ayodhya  were now destined to be joyous, healthy, blissed with contentment and virtuous while Ayodhya, bereft of famine and fear of any variety. No one ever bereaved demise of one’s progeny and devoted wives, of their spouses as widows. Fear from fire, fever and wind would be non-existent while no one would die of drowning in water. No one would starve in cities and states of Ayodhya  spilling over with wealth, grains and bereft of fear of thievery. All pervading bliss in Ayodhya  matched that of Satyayuga. Rama  laid foundation of royal dynasties far more prosperous than ever by propitiating Deva-s with horses and plenty of gold, erudite Brahmana-s with scores of cows and abundance of wealth. He inspired members of four Varna-s to pursue their respective SvaDharma  in this world as SvaDharma  is supreme Karma, impossible to be abandoned and pursuit of SvaDharma  alone assures ultimate emancipation from shackles of Prakrti. After nurturing the Kingdom of Ayodhya  for eleven thousand years, Rama  ascended to Brahmaloka, highest plane of existence. He was gifted a rare gem by Rsi Agastya  that blessed Him with powers of Indra, Varuna, Yama  and Kubera  and that strengthened Him to rule over extra-ordinarily. Bharata  conquered Gandharva-s on eastern front and ruled over that. Satrughna  slew Asura Lavana  and founded the city of Mathura. Rama’s narrative is as sacred as Vedic  exposition, consecrates every mind and obliterates all regressive Karma-s. Perusal of this Rama’s narrative ensures longevity and adoration in Heaven alongwith their progeny and kin. Perusal of Rama’s narrative by a Brahmana  assures erudition in eloquence, Ksatriya  is assured of ruling over a Kingdom, Vaisya  is assured of augmentation in wealth and Sudra, leadership of his community.

As many as three hundred versions of Ramayana  are known to exist with the oldest version being the Samskrita  one attributed to Maharsi Valmiki. Ramayana  voyaged beyond our shores, then indigenised or translated in harmony with local cultural ethos. The epic expanded to many Asian countries like Burma, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Thailand, Malaysia, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam and China. An year long exhibition on ‘Ramayana  Revisited – Tale Of Love And Adventure’ at Peranakan Museum in Singapore ignited exploration of the role that the epic exerted as a cultural unifier, particularly for the Asian region.

Prominent versions of Ramayana  that have emerged outside Bharata are –
Phommachak in Kingdom of Lan Na.

In Laos, the epic is popular as Myongsing Ramayana, Phra Lak Phra Lam and Guay Duorahbi.

In Myanmar, two variants Thagyin and Maha Rama, composed during 18th and 19th centuries respectively, are popular.

Vietnam’s famous dance-drama Lakhon Bassac depicts their variants of the epic.

In Indonesia, the epic was composed in 10th century as Kakawin Ramayana  influencing Wayang Kulit, a puppet theatre group. Some variants include Arjuna Pramada  elaborating meeting of Sri Krisna, Arjuna  with Sri Rama  and Laksamana. According to the Pramada, Arjuna  shot an arrow towards Alengka  i.e. Lanka creating the bridge instantly.

Ramayana  is mentioned in Malay Peninsula as Hikayat Maharaja Wana  and Hikayat Seri Rama, composed in 16th century. In this variant, Wana i.e. Ravana  and Siti Dewi i.e. Sita  are biological father and daughter. Hanuman Kera Putih i.e. Hanumana  is depicted as son of Seri Rama i.e. Sri Rama, born to Him in his former life as Dewa Berembun i.e. Visnu. Malays also believe that Hanumana  constructed the causeway to Langkapuri i.e. Lanka single-handedly and managed to dissuade fish princess, Puteri Ikan from destroying it by marrying her. Interestingly, Hanumana‘s marriage with the mermaid is also mentioned in Thai and Khmer variants of the epic.

Siddhi Ramayana  by Mahakavi  Siddhidas Mahaju Amatya and Bhanubhaktako Ramayana  by Bhanubhakta Acharya in Nepal,

Maharadia Lawana & Darangen of Mindanao in Philippines,

Langka Sip Hor in Tai Lü language.

Ramakein i.e. Ramayana  in Thailand was composed in 1798 wherein abduction of Nang Sida i.e. Sita  by Thotsakan i.e. Ravana  is described as an act of love and his fall from grace is dubbed tragic.

Depiction of various episodes of Reamker i.e. Ramayana  in Cambodia on carved reliefs at Angkora Watt Temple, Banteay Srei and Baphuon during 10th century have been studied in detail.

Ramaenna or Ramaensho in Japan wherein character of Hanumana  was ignored. Suwa Engi No Koto by Koga Saburo Yorikata in 14th century is the version wherein youngest son is exiled by his brothers. Bontenkoku wherein Tamawaka i.e. Sri Rama, is a flute player who escapes with his abducted wife Himegini i.e. Sita  while her captor King Baramon i.e. Ravana  is away for hunting. Other Ramayana  derived stories in Japan including Kifune No Honji, Onzoshi Shimawatari and Bukkigun, have also demonstrated a deep convergence between the characters of Sri Rama and Ravana.

Earliest Ramayana  in China exists in Buddhist text, Liudu Ji Jing that led to creation of fictional King’s character, Sun Wukong i.e. Hanumana, in a 16th century novel Xiyou Ji. Characters of Dasaratha, Sri Rama  and Laksmana  are also there in a 5th century Chinese text, Shishewang Yuan. Dai ethnic group of south-western Yunnan province know the epic as Lanka Xihe i.e. Ten Heads of Lanka.

The epic also spread to Tibet and Mongolia through Buddhism with a variation that it was Bharata  and not Laksmana  who accompanies Sri Rama  in exile.

Events of Ramayana have been found painted in ancient Italian houses discovered in archaeological excavations. Painting depicting Kausalya, Kaikeyi  and Sumitra, queens of King Dasaratha  sharing divine fertility potion to beget illustrious sons has been identified. Sri Rama, Sita  and Laksmana  walking through jungles in that order described in Ramayana, is a scene existing in ancient Italian homes. Italian archaeologists are bewildered at the prospect of Hinduism being practised in Europe and Italy in that era.

Scholars like Nicholas Roerich in European Russia began to read Ramayana  during 19th century in Petersburg. He visited Ceylon with images of palaces and pagodas in his mind “But, after all, only in fragments do Colombo and Ceylon recall the ancient Lanka of Hanumana, Rama, Ravana  and other giants,” he wrote in his memoirs. The epic was translated into Russian in 1948 by Alexander Baranikov, an eminent Indologist.  It is now available in the country both as children’s Classic also in addition to complete text. Pechnikov’s Ramayana  too exists, authored by Natalia Guseva, an eminent Indologist. It was also recorded as a play. Russia’s Deputy Minister of Culture even proposed to film a movie on Ramayana  with mixed cast of actors.

Legend of Dasaratha  also exists in ancient Egyptian lore. All these establish, European and African countries followed Vedic Dharma  in ancient times.

Ramayana  is a grand epic of the Vedic  world and greatest cultural contribution to the world, imparts highly refined instruction in every aspect of life, in a way highest order of human conduct, having transcended religious and cultural boundaries. It is so righteously declared in Ramayana, “As long as rivers and mountains continue to exist in the world, saga of Ramayana  shall continue.” It is ironical that the epic enjoys far wider acceptance across various countries in the world that drifted away from Hinduism centuries ago than the country of it’s origin and mandatory introduction into school syllabi is dubbed a “communal” act. 

 

Published @ http://www.hindupost.in/society-culture/rama-rajya-ramayana/

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SHOW ME YOUR GOD NOW, SO CHALLENGED NOBEL LAUREATE CV RAMANA

In 1930, Srila Bhakti Siddhanta Saraswati Goswami Thakura Prabhupada  organized a month long festival at Gaudiya Math, Bagh Bazar in Calcutta to celebrate Sri Krishna Janmastami, every day a dignitary was invited to preside over as Honorary Chairman of celebrations of the day. A few students of Dr. C V Ramana used to come regularly to listen to lectures at the Math. Once these students came to see Srila Prabhupada, complained that every day a distinguished person was being appointed Honorary Chairman but not their Professor who happened to be a Nobel Laureate and world famous by then. To this, Srila Prabhupada  responded, he had no objection to inviting Dr. Ramana as Honorary Chairman for an evening and deputed Srila Madhava Maharaja  to invite him. As Dr. Ramana spoke neither Bengali nor Hindi, entire conversation was solemnized in English.

When Srila Madhava Maharaja  conveyed purpose of his visit to the scientist, he responded tersely, ‘I don’t believe in your Keshto-Bishtu (KrisnaVisnu). I have no faith in anything that cannot be confirmed by direct sensory experience. I cannot waste my valuable time with imaginary things. I would prefer to attend any conference dealing with science or education, but not a religious one.’ Srila  then countered, ‘Your own students have been coming regularly to listen to Math’s discourses. It was their desire that you be honoured in the same way that so many other community leaders in Calcutta have been in past. I have been asked by my Gurudeva  to invite you, so please accept our invitation.’

Dr. Ramana then said, ‘Can you show me your God ? If you can show Him to me, I will come along.’

As one side of the laboratory in which the conversation was being held, had a wall without door and window while on the other side was entire north Calcutta, Srila Madhava Maharaja  replied, ‘I can see nothing on the other side of this wall but if I say that there is nothing there, will that be considered true?’

Dr. Ramana answered, ‘Perhaps you cannot see what is there but you could with appropriate instruments.’

Srila Madhava Maharaja  asked, ‘There is a limit to what your instruments can do. You can only see as far as they allow you. Can you say that there is nothing beyond these limits?’

Dr. Ramana replied, ‘Never mind. I will not waste my time on this. I will not give my attention to anything that is not within my sense experience. I will only spare my valuable time if you can actually show me your God. Can you do it just now ?’

Srila Madhava Maharaja  asked, ‘If your students were to say to you that they would study your scientific findings only if you can show them the truth of what you have realised through your experiments, what would you say ?’

Dr. Ramana replied, ‘I would make them realize it !’

Srila Madhava Maharaja  asked, ‘Can you make them realize even before teaching them ?’

Dr. Ramana replied, ‘No, I would first have to show them the process by which I have come to realize the truth. They will have to follow that process if they want to have the same realization. First they will have to earn their B.Sc. degree, then their M.Sc. Then they will have to study with me for another five years. Then I will be able to make them understand.’

Srila Madhava Maharaja  said, ‘If that is true for you and your scientific knowledge, then can Seers of ancient Bharata  not say exactly the same thing ? Follow their process and see whether you experience God’s existence or not. You are unable to show the scientific truths you profess to your students until they have adopted your process. Similarly, if you want to experience or understand God, you have to follow the process by which that is accomplished………………’     

Srila  was right. Without following a certain procedure, one cannot perceive the Divine Being. Unless we are consecrated, purified of all our past Karma-s and subtle drags like Kama, Krodha, Lobha, Moha, Ahamkara, it is impossible to behold Him that we are ourselves just as bottom of a water body cannot be seen unless entire water is pellucid pure like a glass crystal !! Without resorting to that, it is preposterous to challenge, “Where is your God ?” as done by the scientist.

 

However, as history goes, Srila  could not persuade CV Ramana to join the function in spite of the Nobel Laureate being rendered speechless and stunned by the logical arguments hidden in this tremendous wisdom. The scientist was too rigid in his disposition to concede that.

 

Published @ http://patriotsforum.org/show-me-your-god-now-so-challenged-nobel-laureate-c-v-ramana/

 

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ONCE UPON A TIME CHINA LOVED BHARATAVARSA !!!

Oh yes, they did, indeed !!

Chinese have a long history of mutual interactions with Bharata. Original Chin race inhabited Kashmir as well as southern Bharata, most probably in Tamil Nadu and they colonised the then central province of Shensi in China. It is now well-established that ancient Chinese had their roots in Bharata. The race of Chins is mentioned in Mahabharata composed in 3100 BCE and in Canakya’s Arthasastra  as China being established by Shih Huang Ti in 221 BC. Even the name China traces it’s roots in Samskrita  meaning thereby, “regions to the east”. With Sanatana Dharma  at the core, ancient Chinese culture was Vedic  in characteristics. It is supported by several pieces of evidence viz. use of Vedic  calender by the Tang dynasty (618-907 AD), celestial deity of death Yamaraja  being known as Yanmo Wang in ancient China, inviting Vajrabodhi  (671-741) to conduct Yajna  for rains in 726 AD etc. Remains of Siva  Temple with 5 mtr. tall Sivalinga  still exist in Fujiyan province which was renovated in 1400s and profound evidence of Mahakala  followers in Yunan province. Hsuan-wu province has a large pillar with extensive inscriptions in Samskrita. Hindu  temples existed till 6th century AD and Tamilians raised a Siva  Temple sometime in 13th century China.

It was more than a millennium ago, Bharata  exported Buddhism to China via Silk Route without even custom’s clearance !! And the cultural renaissance it brought about after Buddhism being lapped up so adoringly that it created a unique history of sorts. Two natural land routes into China for Buddhists during Han Empire (206 BC – 220 AD) were through Xinjiang i.e. Silk Route and the other through Yunnan, known as Chama Road.

In 68 AD, the then Han Emperor had a dream of a golden figure and he immediately deputed Cai Yin to Bharata  to learn more about Buddhism. He returned with Buddhist scriptures and two Buddhist monks. Yuezhi now had a religion in which Buddha  was a pantheon and Mahayana  Buddhism started that way. Buddha  in the form of large human statues like Greek deities, existed all over Central Asia, Xinjiang and China. Buddhism became popular and Buddhist temples were constructed in large numbers. Bingling Grottoes in Gansu is a sprawling ancient Buddhist temple complex with an array of statues and frescoes dating Ming Dynasty. Early statues have typical Bharatiya  gestures and poses of hands and feet. Bezeklik Grottoes near Turpan depict Caucasian, Bharatiya  and Mongoloid Buddhists together. Central Asians continued to propagate Buddhist teachings during Tang Dynasty (618-907) and it was popular and influential. Other big land route called Chama Road linked southeastern China with Tibet and through Tibet, Southeast Asia. Nanzhao Empire (738-902) was also influenced by religious teachings of Buddhists, constructed large Buddhist temples around capital Dali. These were thriving centers of Buddhism and propagated extensively. Three large Buddhist Pagoda-s famous as Three Pagoda-s still remain there raised during their rule.

Today China has largest number of Buddhist treasure, monasteries, temples and caves in the world, all facilitated via Silk Route alone though not a comfortable assignation indeed. Even today, the route has no facilities to brag about and it is an arduous venture to travel down the path as narrated earlier by Hiuen Tsang in his travelogue. Buddhist Masters were adamant in travelling to China carrying loads of books on Samskrita  scriptures irrespective of the grave dangers of perishing due to starvation, thirst, being lost or even attacked by wild animals. They were always welcomed by Chinese monarchs warmly and the knowledge imparted by them received so adoringly. Their Vartalapa Pustika  i.e. book of conversation invariably carried questions like, “Where are you from, how are you, what Samskrita  scriptures have you brought with you and have you met the emperor” etc.

One of the most prominent cultural emissaries and Buddhist scholars was Kumarajiva  who journeyed to China some 1600 years ago to whet their appetite for wisdom. Kumarajiva  had a family history of erudition like his father Kumarayana, a Kashmiri Brahmana  turned Buddhist monk who had also travelled to China along Silk Route to disseminate Buddhist wisdom. His mother Jiva  was a princess of Kucha  Kingdom that lay en route. He was born in 334 CE in Kucha Kingdom, now Kuqa in China and died in the year 413 CE in Chang’an, also in China. As a child prodigy, Kumarajiva  studied Buddhist scriptures of Mahayana  tradition and Veda-s inspired by his mother, by now a  Buddhist nun. He was also fluent in Samskrita  and Chinese. When he was instructed by his Guru  to travel to China to disseminate the enormous wisdom gained, he was prevented by the King of Kucha  as the King abhorred the idea of  losing a scholar of his level of erudition !! That was a unique instance wherein brain-drain was prevented by the King !!

As Chinese invitations were not allowed to be accepted by him by his King, Chinese Monarch deputed an Army of 70,000 soldiers to capture Kumarajiva  and escort him to China with great respect and honour. There he was honoured with the position of Royal Guru. Beautiful monasteries were constructed to enable him live there comfortably, teach and preach Buddhist philosophy to students from all over the Chinese Kingdom. He also supervised translation of Samskrita  texts and scriptures into Chinese. Since Kumarajiva  was a poet himself, he translated some 54 scriptures poetically, very unique way of translating scriptures including Lotus Sutra, Sukhvati Vyuha Sutra, Diamond Sutra, Amitabha Sutra, Mulamadhyamakakarika, Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra, Mahaprajnaparamita Upadesa, Pancavimsatisahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra  and Vimalakirtinirdesa Sutra  being the prominent ones. His main disciples were Daosheng, Sengzhao, Daorong  and Sengui. Kumarajiva  revolutionized Chinese Buddhism through use of Daoist and Confucian terms i.e. concept-matching. His diction was distinctive gifted with smoothness that reflected his emphasis on conveying interpretation instead of precise literal renderings. Thus, seminal Mahayana  texts have been more popular than precise translations.

His influence reached even Japanese shores that led to constitution of Soka Gakkai  and Pureland  sects of Buddhism. Japanese Prince Shotoku Taishi was so enamoured of Kumarajiva  that he formulated Constitution of his Kingdom based on Buddhist wisdom like Bahujana Hitaya, Bahujana Sukhaya  and Pancasila. Today Japan boasts of 65,000 Buddhist temples rooted in Kumarajiva’s teachings. So, quest for Sanatana / Buddhist wisdom was so pronounced in China that once they invaded Champa in Vietnam only to capture 1,300 Samskrita  scriptures !! Great wall of China has ‘Supreme Victory’ inscribed in Samskrita  even today.

The trend gradually reversed, turned vicious after Communist takeover of China in forties.

 

Published @ http://patriotsforum.org/once-upon-a-time-china-loved-bharatavarsa/   

 

@ http://www.makingindia.co/online-news-english/2017/01/07/history-kumarjiva-buddha-china-loved-bharatavarsa/

 

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DYNASTIC POLITICS IN DEMOCRACIES : BANE OR BOON

Whether dynastic, feudalistic politics has been largely responsible for dragging the nation backward and downward is a mind-boggling issue which must be intensely examined lest it continues languishing in the domain of frivolous allegations and counter-allegations. Political dynasties have been a reality, be that in the benign State of Bihar, South Block in New Delhi or the White House in Washington DC with Bush / Clinton dynasties etc. Even a relatively cool and silent country like Canada appears to be catching up with Justine Trudeau as their youngest Prime Minister, son of ex-PM Pierre Trudeau.

Most prominent Bharatiya  political dynasty has been Nehru-Gandhis. Why is that Nehru-Gandhi dynasty that ruled over the nation for more than six decades, miserably failed to transform the nation into a superpower while Japan / Germany rose rapidly to become highly advanced countries within a span of just two decades in spite of their being completely destroyed in World War II and Japan having undergone the terrible catastrophe of two nuclear strikes by America ?? One does not need to be a genius of Albert Einstein to proffer the theory of Nehru-Gandhis deliberately pushing the country backward so as to nurture their vote-treasury and cling to power eternally, generation after generations. Nehru and two Gandhis ruled over the country for 37 out of first 42 years of post-1947 independence and authored one of the worst economic calamities, that too in a highly talented and gifted nation blessed with enormous natural resources.

JL Nehru being a Communist by disposition, was obsessed with Soviet brand of restrictive economy designed through the instrument of five-year planning conspired in the building of Planning Commission instead of free enterprise, unrestricted entrepreneurship, civil liberty for individual talent to blossom, human rights to prosperity and affluence. He packed Planning Commission with Left leaning economists who intentionally stymied country’s growth rate at 4%, then moved around the world and ridiculed it as ‘Hindu  Rate of Growth’ !! Those were the so-called economists who were showered with Padma-Bhushans and -Vibhushans. It was not that nobody in that era whistled and warned him to the effect that he was walking down the inglorious path of penury, misery, destruction and disintegration. Nobel Laureate in Economics Milton Friedman and BR Shenoy raised hue and cry that were promptly conveyed to him in no uncertain terms. But the infatuation of his obsession with the bankrupt economic ideology did not allow him to open his eyes and ears. He preferred to idolize discredited development models of Gunnar Myrdal and Arthur Lewis. Or may be he had planned it that way, how not to allow the nation to rise to lost glory of prosperity and well-being !!! 

Worse than Nehru was his daughter Indira Gandhi, vindictive and venomous Prime Minister that Bharata has known so far. She multipled her father’s dubious legacy through ‘Garibi Hatao’ sloganeering, then imposing maximum income tax rate at 97% coupled with dismantling all august Constitutional bodies with her own hands to perpetuate her dynasty and cling to office most brazenly even after her Parliamentary election was held null and void. Indira Gandhi took over in 1966 when an average Bharatiya  earned half as much as an average South Korean in that year. By 1990 when country was on the verge of being declared insolvent, an average Bharatiya  earned just one-sixth of what an average South Korean earned !! More than half of country’s population somehow breathed and survived below the income level of Extreme Poverty as defined by the World Bank at $1.90 a day !! If economic measures that were undertaken in 1991 had been out of sheer penance, out of sheer conviction, it would have been one of the most remarkable turnaround chapters of nation’s history. It is not so in spite of economic benefits that accrued because those reforms were undertaken out of sheer compulsion, with our back to the wall, nowhere else to go and absolutely nothing else to do. Poverty began going down gradually as those measures allowed the country to breathe afresh, hand and feet untied, allowed to sprint and gallop for the first time in history. With one-fifth population below poverty line, nation is now poised to obliterate poverty altogether and forever. It is so paradoxical and ironical to behold, the dynasty believes or pretends to believe, long years of disastrous miseries and agonies were in fact springboard to initiate those reforms into prosperity instead of owning the inglorious past in a somber, pensive mood, deifying Prime Minister Rao into ‘Mahatma’ and apologising for what they did to the nation intentionally or otherwise. It shall make an interesting case study in management classes across the country as to how ManMohan Singh acted so boldly as PM Rao’s Finance Minister and all the dynamism disappeared into thin air, anti-national corruption of monumental dimensions / implications creeped into Government when he headed as Prime Minister under UPA’s Chairpersonship of yet another Gandhi, albeit of naturalized variety. By raising a huge mountain of reckless / thoughtless / unmonitored subsidies with unmitigated debasement of nation’s economy ruined his entire political capital that he had earned earlier painstakingly and retired as a sulking, grieving and languishing ex-Head of the State consigned to dustbin of history. While subsidies to the tune of 9% of GDP were frittered away by the dynasty, the figure was merely 5% during non-dynasty regimes. If the dynasty raised subsidies by 13% year on year basis, non-dynasts did so by 4% on the same scale of measurement. Similarly expenses grew at the rate of 9% under dynasty rule, it was mere 5% under non-dynasts. Central Government debts and cash deficits have been always been double of what non-dynasty regimes maintained. Even on parameters like growth in hospitals / schools, infrastructure construction, utilization of MPLAD funds or even Parliamentary attendance, dynasts faired conspicuously poorly. Thus the dynasty had no qualms in raising indebtedness of generations to come by wasting national income and surpluses. Doles and largesse with open leakages were in reality meant for silencing their own cadres into submission and obedience, thereafter subjugating poor, famished,  struggling to survive masses to gladly become vote making machines. Subsidies not only created economic whirlpools but also destroyed precious entrepreneurship individually.

Youngest Gandhi does not appear to have metamorphosed from state of being a tadpole and he still remains, a tadpole though he is past prime of his life in terms of evolutionary advancement. The horrible display of his Leninism in scuttling Vedanta Group’s two Billion US $ Bauxite mining project in Odisha shocked all those who understood the ‘Idea of India’ capable of galloping like Cetaka  raining wealth and prosperity over famished / malnourished for generations of poor inhabitants of Odisha. His preoccupations with inequality bordering grossest form of immaturity was in reality, nurtured by his own dynasty !! He revealed his utter lack of understanding of the ‘Grand Narrative of Bharata’ when he told US Ambassador Timothy Reamer that ‘India is threatened more by Hindu  fundamentalists’ than Islamic terrorists. Such a ludicrous statement coming from the scion of Gandhi dynasty lucidly explains, root-cause of all social / economic tensions that tormented the nation all these decades.

Now with sagging fortunes and desertions by old stalwarts, dynasty has been forced to mull over drafting next one, a Gandhi turned Vadra, who has harnessed obsequious media into projecting her as Gandhi only and not at all as Gandhi Vadra or strictly Vadra. And to provide her strength from one step behind, she is blessed with a possible “Mr. 10%” too, interesting replay of Bhutto dynasty in Pakistani politics.  

 

Published @ http://www.makingindia.co/online-news-english/2017/01/29/dynastic-politics-in-democracies-bane-or-boon/

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