**Our ancestors were wizards of Mathematics and Bharata happens to be birthplace of this discipline of study. They taught Maths. to the world, applied mathematical models and tools in various other branches of knowledge. From Dirgatamas Mamateya in BC 4500, an erudite scholar of King Bharata who authored various Sloka-s of Rig Veda to greatest mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920), evolution of mathematics in Bharata has been amazing. Ancient scholars like Baudhayana, Aryabhatta, Brahmagupta, Bhaskara and Madhava etc. were pioneers who contributed a lot to the evolution of modern mathematics, astronomy and other sciences. Western charlatans brazenly appropriated their original work during colonialism by floating dubious theories like Arayana invasion etc.**

**On April 5, 2016, International Conference on Zero was organised by UNESCO in Paris and a bust of Aryabhatta (476-550) was unveiled. Bharatiya mathematician Aryabhatta is the original discoverer of zero. First systematic application of number system for calculations and scientific research was done by Aryabhatta alone. Another great Bharatiya mathematician Brahmagupta formulated rules for computations with zero which ultimately led to development of algebra. In his Brahmasphutasiddhanta dated 628 AD, authored in Samskrita, he introduced negative numbers and created set of whole numbers. Famous science historian George Sarton declared him ‘one of the greatest scientists of his race and greatest of his times’. Four major Sulbasutra-s are those composed by Baudhayana, Manava, Apastamba and Katyayana. After comparing their texts with contemporary Vedic texts, the time zone of their composition falls between 800 BCE to 200 BCE. Those were all great Tapasvi-s and Sadhaka-s who used discern / perceive mesmerising knowledge in higher states of consciousness. These are verticals of major contribution of Hindu mathematicians in ancient Bharata –**

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**Number System & Negative Numbers**

**Concept of Zero**

**Solutions of Quadratic Equations**

**Integral & Differential Calculus**

**Evidence of Greater Antiquity of Bharatiya Mathematical Discoveries –**

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**S.No / European Claims / Bharatiya Claims**

**1 – Pythagorean Triples, Pythagoras (540 BC) / Taittiriya Triples, Taittiriya Samhita (3500 BC)**

**2 – Pythagoras Theorem, Pythagoras (540 BC) / Baudhayana Theorem, Baudhayana (2000 BC)**

**3 – Heron’s Formula, Heron (10-70 AD) / Sulbasutra Formula, Sulbasutra‘s (2000 -1700 BC)**

**4 – Backus-Naur Form Notation, Backus-Naur (1963) / Panini-Backus-Naur Form Notation, Panini (700 BC)**

**5 – Pascal’s Triangle, Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) / Pingala–Varahamihira Triangle, Pingala (700 BC), Varahamihira (488 AD or 150 BC)**

**6 – Fibonacci Sequence of Numbers, Leonardo (Fibonacci) of Pisa (1202 AD) / Pingala–Virahanka Sequence of Numbers, Pingala (700 BC), Virahanka (6th century)**

**7 – George Cantor Theory (Concept of infinity and Theory of infinite Cardinal Numbers) George Cantor (1845-1918) / Jain-Cantor Theory, Jain Canonical Works (500-200 BC)**

**8 – Joan Napier Logarithms, Joan Napier (1550-1617) / Virasena Logarithms, Virasena (760-830 AD)**

**9 – Extended Euclidean Algorithm, Euclid (300 BC) / Aryabhatta Algorithm, Aryabhatta (476 AD or 2742 BC)**

**10 – Wilson’s Theorem, John Wilson (1741-1793) / Bhaskara’s Theorem, Bhaskara I (570-650 AD)**

**11 – Pell’s Equation, John Pell (1610-1685 AD) / Brahmagupta Equation, Brahmagupta (598-668 AD)**

**12 – George Cantor’s Theory of Sets, George Cantor (1845-1918) / Virasena-Cantor’s Theory of Sets, Virasena (760-830 AD)**

**13 – Newton-Gauss Interpolation Formula, Newton (1643-1727) Gauss (1777-1855) / Govinda Swami Interpolation Formula, Govinda Swami (800-860 AD)**

**14 – Herigone’s Formula, Herigone (1580-1643 AD) / Mahavira’s Formula, Mahavira (814-880 AD)**

**15 – Newton-Stirling Interpolation Formula, Newton (1643-1727) / Brahmagupta Interpolation Formula, Brahmagupta (598-668 AD)**

**16 – Modern Formula for solving Quadratic Equations / Sridhara’s Formula, Sridhara (750 AD)**

**17 – Newton-Gauss Backward Interpolation Formula, Newton (1643-1727) Gauss (1777-1855) / Vateshwara Backward Interpolation Formula, Vateshwara (880 AD)**

**18 – Rolle’s Theorem, Michel Rolle (1691) / Bhaskaracarya Theorem, Bhaskara II (1114-1185 AD)**

**19 – Fermat’s Factorization Method, Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665) / Narayana Pandit’s Factorization Method, Narayana Pandit (1325-1400 AD)**

**20 – Newton’s Power Series, Newton (1643-1727) / Madhava Series, Madhava (1340-1425 AD)**

**21 – Taylor Series, Brook Taylor (1685-1731) / Madhava Series, Madhava (1340-1425 AD)**

**22 – Gregory Series / Madhava Series, Madhava (1340-1425 AD)**

**23 – Leibnitz Series, Leibnitz (1646-1716) / Madhava Series, Madhava (1340-1425 AD)**

**24 – Euler Series, Euler (177-1783) / Madhava Series, Madhava (1340-1425 AD)**

**25 – Lhuilier Formula, Lhuilier (1782) / Parameshvara’s Formula, Parameshvara (1360-1445 AD)**

**26 – Tychonic Planetary Model, Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) / Nilakantha’s Planetary Model, Nilakantha (1444-1543 AD)**

**27 – Tycho Brahe, Inventor of the Technique of “Reduction to Ecliptic” (1546-1601) / Acyuta Pisārati, Inventor of the Technique of “Reduction to Ecliptic” (1540-1621 AD)**

**28 – Hipparchus, Father of Trigonometry, (190-120 BC) / Surya Siddhanta, “Father of Modern Trigonometry” (800 BC or 3000 BC)**

**29 – Diophantine Equations, Diophantus (3rd century) / Aryabhatta Equations, Aryabhatta (476 AD or 2742 BC)**

**30 – Kepler (1571-1630), Formulae for finding volumes of a frustum of cone and pyramid / Brahmagupta (598-668 AD) **

**…………………….and so many more.**** **

**One really envies monumental and mind-boggling advances achieved by Hindu Rsi-s and Maharsi-s centuries ago. There are lot many others who cannot stomach those advances compelled by their sinister, vested interests. We must remain on our toes always and ever against such reprehensible acts perpetrated upon Hindu-s by hostile anti-Hindu forces. **